Results 1  10
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611
UniFrac: a new phylogenetic method for comparing microbial communities
 APPL. ENVIRON
, 2005
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Improvement of phylogenies after removing divergent and ambiguously aligned blocks from protein sequence alignments
 SYST BIOL
, 2007
"... Alignment quality may have as much impact on phylogenetic reconstruction as the phylogenetic methods used. Not only the alignment algorithm, but also the method used to deal with the most problematic alignment regions, may have a critical effect on the final tree. Although some authors remove such ..."
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Cited by 311 (1 self)
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Alignment quality may have as much impact on phylogenetic reconstruction as the phylogenetic methods used. Not only the alignment algorithm, but also the method used to deal with the most problematic alignment regions, may have a critical effect on the final tree. Although some authors remove such problematic regions, either manually or using automatic methods, in order to improve phylogenetic performance, others prefer to keep such regions to avoid losing any information. Our aim in the present work was to examine whether phylogenetic reconstruction improves after alignment cleaning or not. Using simulated protein alignments with gaps, we tested the relative performance in diverse phylogenetic analyses of the whole alignments versus the alignments with problematic regions removed with our previously developed Gblocks program. We also tested the performance of more or less stringent conditions in the selection of blocks. Alignments constructed with different alignment methods (ClustalW, Mafft, and Probcons) were used to estimate phylogenetic trees by maximum likelihood, neighbor joining, and parsimony. We show that, in most alignment conditions, and for alignments that are not too short, removal of blocks leads to better trees. That is, despite losing some information, there is an increase in the actual phylogenetic signal. Overall, the best trees are obtained by maximumlikelihood reconstruction of alignments cleaned by Gblocks. In general, a relaxed selection of blocks is better for short alignment, whereas a stringent selection is more adequate for longer ones. Finally, we show that cleaned alignments produce better topologies although, paradoxically, with lower bootstrap. This indicates that divergent and problematic alignment regions may lead, when present, to apparently
Gascuel O. Approximate LikelihoodRatio Test for Branches: A
 Fast, Accurate, and Powerful Alternative. Systematic Biology
"... Abstract.—We revisit statistical tests for branches of evolutionary trees reconstructed upon molecular data. A new, fast, approximate likelihoodratio test (aLRT) for branches is presented here as a competitive alternative to nonparametric bootstrap and Bayesian estimation of branch support. The aLR ..."
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Cited by 267 (10 self)
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Abstract.—We revisit statistical tests for branches of evolutionary trees reconstructed upon molecular data. A new, fast, approximate likelihoodratio test (aLRT) for branches is presented here as a competitive alternative to nonparametric bootstrap and Bayesian estimation of branch support. The aLRT is based on the idea of the conventional LRT, with the null hypothesis corresponding to the assumption that the inferred branch has length 0. We show that the LRT statistic is asymptotically distributed as a maximum of three random variables drawn from the 1 2 1 2 χ 2 0 + χ
Inferring phylogeny despite incomplete lineage sorting
 Syst. Biol
, 2006
"... Abstract.—It is now well known that incomplete lineage sorting can cause serious difficulties for phylogenetic inference, but little attention has been paid to methods that attempt to overcome these difficulties by explicitly considering the processes that produce them. Here we explore approaches to ..."
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Cited by 162 (5 self)
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Abstract.—It is now well known that incomplete lineage sorting can cause serious difficulties for phylogenetic inference, but little attention has been paid to methods that attempt to overcome these difficulties by explicitly considering the processes that produce them. Here we explore approaches to phylogenetic inference designed to consider retention and sorting of ancestral polymorphism. We examine how the reconstructability of a species (or population) phylogeny is affected by (a) the number of loci used to estimate the phylogeny and (b) the number of individuals sampled per species. Even in difficult cases with considerable incomplete lineage sorting (times between divergences less than 1 Ne generations), we found the reconstructed species trees matched the "true " species trees in at least three out of five partitions, as long as a reasonable number of individuals per species were sampled. We also studied the tradeoff between sampling more loci versus more individuals. Although increasing the number of loci gives more accurate trees for a given sampling effort with deeper species trees (e.g., total depth of 10 Nc generations), sampling more individuals often gives better results than sampling more loci with shallower species trees (e.g., depth = 1 Ne). Taken together, these results demonstrate that gene sequences retain enough signal to achieve an accurate estimate of phylogeny despite widespread incomplete lineage sorting. Continued improvement in our methods to reconstruct phylogeny near the species level will require a shift to a compound model that considers not only nucleotide or character state substitutions, but also the population genetics processes of lineage sorting. [Coalescence; divergence; population; speciation.]
Species trees from gene trees: Reconstructing Bayesian posterior distributions of a species phylogeny using estimated gene tree distributions
 SYSTEMATIC BIOLOGY
, 2007
"... The estimation of species trees has become popular as a considerable amount of multilocus molecular data is available for inferring the evolutionary history of species. However, the current phylogenetic paradigm, that reconstructs gene trees to represent the species tree suggests that commonly used ..."
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Cited by 107 (11 self)
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The estimation of species trees has become popular as a considerable amount of multilocus molecular data is available for inferring the evolutionary history of species. However, the current phylogenetic paradigm, that reconstructs gene trees to represent the species tree suggests that commonly used methods such as the concatenation method, the consensus tree method, or the gene tree parsimony method may be either inconsistent or highly biased. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate the phylogeny of a group of species using multiple estimated gene tree distributions such as those that arise in a Bayesian analysis of DNA sequence data. Our model employs substitution models used in traditional phylogenetics, but also uses coalescent theory to explain genealogical signals from species trees to gene trees and from gene trees to sequence data, thereby forming a stochastic model to estimate gene trees, species trees, ancestral population sizes and species divergence times simultaneously. Our model is founded on the assumption that gene trees, even of unlinked loci, are correlated due to being derived from a single species tree and therefore should be estimated jointly. We apply the method to two multilocus DNA sequences datasets. The estimates of the
Inconsistency of Phylogenetic Estimates from Concatenated Data under Coalescence
, 2007
"... Although multiple gene sequences are becoming increasingly available for molecular phylogenetic inference, the analysis of such data has largely relied on inference methods designed for single genes. One of the common approaches to analyzing data from multiple genes is concatenation of the individua ..."
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Cited by 104 (2 self)
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Although multiple gene sequences are becoming increasingly available for molecular phylogenetic inference, the analysis of such data has largely relied on inference methods designed for single genes. One of the common approaches to analyzing data from multiple genes is concatenation of the individual gene data to form a single supergene to which traditional phylogenetic inference procedures—e.g., maximum parsimony (MP) or maximum likelihood (ML)—are applied. Recent empirical studies have demonstrated that concatenation of sequences from multiple genes prior to phylogenetic analysis often results in inference of a single, wellsupported phylogeny. Theoretical work, however, has shown that the coalescent can produce substantial variation in singlegene histories. Using simulation, we combine these ideas to examine the performance of the concatenation approach under conditions in which the coalescent produces a high level of discord among individual gene trees and show that it leads to statistically inconsistent estimation in this setting. Furthermore, use of the bootstrap to measure support for the inferred phylogeny can result in moderate to strong support for an incorrect tree under these conditions. These results highlight the importance of incorporating variation in gene histories into multilocus phylogenetics. [Coalescence; concatenation; gene tree; maximum likelihood; species tree; statistical inconsistency; supergene.]
2004. Frequentist properties of Bayesian posterior probabilities of phylogenetic trees under simple and complex substitution models. Syst. Biol
"... Abstract. — What does die posterior probability of a phylogenetic tree mean? This simulation study shows that Bayesian posterior probabilities have the meaning that is typically ascribed to them; the pt>sterkir probability ot'a tree is the probability that the tree is corwct, assuming th> ..."
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Cited by 93 (6 self)
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Abstract. — What does die posterior probability of a phylogenetic tree mean? This simulation study shows that Bayesian posterior probabilities have the meaning that is typically ascribed to them; the pt>sterkir probability ot'a tree is the probability that the tree is corwct, assuming th>.it the model is correct. At the same time, the BayLsian method can be sensitive to model misspecification, and the sensitivity of the Bayesian method appears to be greater than the sensitivity ot " the nonparametric bootstrap method (using maximum likelihood to estimate trees). Although the estimatLs of phylogeny obtained by use of the method of maximum likelihood or the Bayesian method are Ukely to be similar, the assessment of the uncertainty of inferred trees via either bootstriipping (t"or maximum likelihood estimates) or petsterior probabilities (for Bayesian estimates) is not likely to be the same. We suggest that the Bayesian method be implemented with the most complex models of those currently avaiiable, as tliis should reduce the chance that the metliod will concentrate too much probability on tuo few trees. [Bayesian estimation; Markov ch^iin Monte Carlo; posterior probability; prior probability.] Quantify ing the uncertainty of a phylogcneticesti mil te is at least as important a goal as obtaining the phylogenetic estimate itself. Measures of phylogenetic reliability not only point out what parts of a tree can be trusted when interpreting the evolution of a group, but can guide
Reliable prediction of regulator targets using 12 Drosophila genomes, Genome Res
, 2007
"... Comparative prediction of motif instances * shared first authors + corresponding authors: ..."
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Cited by 89 (14 self)
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Comparative prediction of motif instances * shared first authors + corresponding authors:
Toric ideals of phylogenetic invariants
 JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY
, 2005
"... Statistical models of evolution are algebraic varieties in the space of joint probability distributions on the leaf colorations of a phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic invariants of a model are the polynomials which vanish on the variety. Several widely used models for biological sequences have tra ..."
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Cited by 83 (15 self)
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Statistical models of evolution are algebraic varieties in the space of joint probability distributions on the leaf colorations of a phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic invariants of a model are the polynomials which vanish on the variety. Several widely used models for biological sequences have transition matrices that can be diagonalized by means of the Fourier transform of an abelian group. Their phylogenetic invariants form a toric ideal in the Fourier coordinates. We determine minimal generators and Gröbner bases for these toric ideals. For the JukesCantor and Kimura models on a binary tree, our Gröbner basis consists of quadrics, cubics and quartics.