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694
Achieving 100% Throughput in an InputQueued Switch
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS
, 1996
"... It is well known that headofline (HOL) blocking limits the throughput of an inputqueued switch with FIFO queues. Under certain conditions, the throughput can be shown to be limited to approximately 58%. It is also known that if nonFIFO queueing policies are used, the throughput can be increas ..."
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Cited by 527 (27 self)
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It is well known that headofline (HOL) blocking limits the throughput of an inputqueued switch with FIFO queues. Under certain conditions, the throughput can be shown to be limited to approximately 58%. It is also known that if nonFIFO queueing policies are used, the throughput can be increased. However, it has not been previously shown that if a suitable queueing policy and scheduling algorithm are used then it is possible to achieve 100% throughput for all independent arrival processes. In this paper we prove this to be the case using a simple linear programming argument and quadratic Lyapunov function. In particular, we assume that each input maintains a separate FIFO queue for each output and that the switch is scheduled using a maximum weight bipartite matching algorithm. We introduce two maximum weight matching algorithms: LQF and OCF. Both
The iSLIP Scheduling Algorithm for InputQueued Switches
, 1999
"... An increasing number of high performance internetworking protocol routers, LAN and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switches use a switched backplane based on a crossbar switch. Most often, these systems use input queues to hold packets waiting to traverse the switching fabric. It is well known th ..."
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Cited by 425 (8 self)
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An increasing number of high performance internetworking protocol routers, LAN and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switches use a switched backplane based on a crossbar switch. Most often, these systems use input queues to hold packets waiting to traverse the switching fabric. It is well known that if simple first in first out (FIFO) input queues are used to hold packets then, even under benign conditions, headofline (HOL) blocking limits the achievable bandwidth to approximately 58.6 % of the maximum. HOL blocking can be overcome by the use of virtual output queueing, which is described in this paper. A scheduling algorithm is used to configure the crossbar switch, deciding the order in which packets will be served. Recent results have shown that with a suitable scheduling algorithm, 100 % throughput can be achieved. In this paper, we present a scheduling algorithm called iSLIP. An iterative, roundrobin algorithm, iSLIP can achieve 100% throughput for uniform traffic, yet is simple to implement in hardware. Iterative and noniterative versions of the algorithms are presented, along with modified versions for prioritized traffic. Simulation results are presented to indicate the performance of iSLIP under benign and bursty traffic conditions. Prototype and commercial implementations of iSLIP exist in systems with aggregate bandwidths ranging from 50 to 500 Gb/s. When the traffic is nonuniform, iSLIP quickly adapts to a fair scheduling policy that is guaranteed never to starve an input queue. Finally, we describe the implementation complexity of iSLIP. Based on a twodimensional (2D) array of priority encoders, singlechip schedulers have been built supporting up to 32 ports, and making approximately 100 million scheduling decisions per second.
Shock Graphs and Shape Matching
, 1997
"... We have been developing a theory for the generic representation of 2D shape, where structural descriptions are derived from the shocks (singularities) of a curve evolution process, acting on bounding contours. We now apply the theory to the problem of shape matching. The shocks are organized into a ..."
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Cited by 269 (35 self)
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We have been developing a theory for the generic representation of 2D shape, where structural descriptions are derived from the shocks (singularities) of a curve evolution process, acting on bounding contours. We now apply the theory to the problem of shape matching. The shocks are organized into a directed, acyclic shock graph, and complexity is managed by attending to the most significant (central) shape components first. The space of all such graphs is highly structured and can be characterized by the rules of a shock graph grammar. The grammar permits a reduction of a shock graph to a unique rooted shock tree. We introduce a novel tree matching algorithm which finds the best set of corresponding nodes between two shock trees in polynomial time. Using a diverse database of shapes, we demonstrate our system's performance under articulation, occlusion, and changes in viewpoint.
A Survey of Automated Timetabling
, 1999
"... The timetabling problem consists in scheduling a sequence of lectures between teachers and students in a prefixed period of time (typically a week), satisfying a set of constraints of various types. A large number of variants of the timetabling problem have been proposed in the literature, which d ..."
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Cited by 196 (16 self)
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The timetabling problem consists in scheduling a sequence of lectures between teachers and students in a prefixed period of time (typically a week), satisfying a set of constraints of various types. A large number of variants of the timetabling problem have been proposed in the literature, which differ from each other based on the type of institution involved (university or school) and the type of constraints. This problem, that has been traditionally considered in the operational research field, has recently been tackled with techniques belonging also to Artificial Intelligence (e.g., genetic algorithms, tabu search, and constraint satisfaction). In this paper, we survey the various formulations of the problem, and the techniques and algorithms used for its solution.
Scheduling Algorithms for Inputqueued Cell Switches
, 1995
"... The algorithms described in this thesis are designed to schedule cells in a very highspeed, parallel, inputqueued crossbar switch. We present several novel scheduling algorithms that we have devised, each aims to match the set of inputs of an inputqueued switch to the set of outputs more effici ..."
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Cited by 174 (5 self)
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The algorithms described in this thesis are designed to schedule cells in a very highspeed, parallel, inputqueued crossbar switch. We present several novel scheduling algorithms that we have devised, each aims to match the set of inputs of an inputqueued switch to the set of outputs more efficiently, fairly and quickly than existing techniques. In Chapter 2 we present the simplest and fastest of these algorithms: SLIP  a parallel algorithm that uses rotating priority ("roundrobin") arbitration. SLIP is simple: it is readily implemented in hardware and can operate at high speed. SLIP has high performance: for uniform i.i.d. Bernoulli arrivals, SLIP is stable for any admissible load, because the arbiters tend to desynchronize. We present analytical results to model this behavior. However, SLIP is not always stable and is not always monotonic: adding more traffic can actually make the algorithm operate more efficiently. We present an approximate analytical model of this behavior. SLIP prevents starvation: all contending inputs are eventually served. We present simulation results, indicating SLIP's performance. We argue that SLIP can be readily implemented for a 32x32 switch on a single chip. In Chapter 3 we present iSLIP, an iterative algorithm that improves upon SLIP by converging on a maximal size match. The performance of iSLIP improves with up to log 2 N iterations. We show that although it has a longer running time than SLIP, an iSLIP scheduler is little more complex to implement. In Chapter 4 we describe maximum or maximal weight matching algorithms based on the occupancy of queues, or waiting times of cells. These algorithms are stabl...
Edmonds polytopes and a hierarchy of combinatorial problems
, 2006
"... Let S be a set of linear inequalities that determine a bounded polyhedron P. The closure of S is the smallest set of inequalities that contains S and is closed under two operations: (i) taking linear combinations of inequalities, (ii) replacing an inequality Σaj xj ≤ a0, where a1,a2,...,an are integ ..."
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Cited by 170 (0 self)
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Let S be a set of linear inequalities that determine a bounded polyhedron P. The closure of S is the smallest set of inequalities that contains S and is closed under two operations: (i) taking linear combinations of inequalities, (ii) replacing an inequality Σaj xj ≤ a0, where a1,a2,...,an are integers, by the inequality Σaj xj ≤ a with a ≥[a0]. Obviously, if integers x1,x2,...,xn satisfy all the inequalities in S, then they satisfy also all inequalities in the closure of S. Conversely, let Σcj xj ≤ c0 hold for all choices of integers x1,x2,...,xn, that satisfy all the inequalities in S. Then we prove that Σcj xj ≤ c0 belongs to the closure of S. To each integer linear programming problem, we assign a nonnegative integer, called its rank. (The rank is the minimum number of iterations of the operation (ii) that are required in order to eliminate the integrality constraint.) We prove that there is no upper bound on the rank of problems arising from the search for largest independent sets in graphs.
Faster scaling algorithms for network problems
 SIAM J. COMPUT
, 1989
"... This paper presents algorithms for the assignment problem, the transportation problem, and the minimumcost flow problem of operations research. The algorithms find a minimumcost solution, yet run in time close to the bestknown bounds for the corresponding problems without costs. For example, the ..."
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Cited by 163 (5 self)
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This paper presents algorithms for the assignment problem, the transportation problem, and the minimumcost flow problem of operations research. The algorithms find a minimumcost solution, yet run in time close to the bestknown bounds for the corresponding problems without costs. For example, the assignment problem (equivalently, minimumcost matching in a bipartite graph) can be solved in O(v/’rn log(nN)) time, where n, m, and N denote the number of vertices, number of edges, and largest magnitude of a cost; costs are assumed to be integral. The algorithms work by scaling. As in the work of Goldberg and Tarjan, in each scaled problem an approximate optimum solution is found, rather than an exact optimum.
The monotone circuit complexity of Boolean functions
 COMBINATORICA
, 1987
"... Recently, Razborov obtained superpolynomial lower bounds for monotone circuits that lect cliques in graphs. In particular, Razborov showed that detecting cliques of size s in a graph dh m vertices requires monotone circuits of size.Q(m'/(log m) ~') for fixed s, and size rn ao°~') for ..."
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Cited by 144 (2 self)
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Recently, Razborov obtained superpolynomial lower bounds for monotone circuits that lect cliques in graphs. In particular, Razborov showed that detecting cliques of size s in a graph dh m vertices requires monotone circuits of size.Q(m'/(log m) ~') for fixed s, and size rn ao°~') for,.:[log ml4J. In this paper we modify the arguments of Razborov to obtain exponential lower bounds for monotone circuits. In particular, detecting cliques of size (1/4) (m/log m) ~'/a requires monotone circuits f size exp (£2((m/log m)~/:~)). For fixed s, any monotone circuit that detects cliques of size s requires 'm'/(log m)') AND gates. We show that even a very rough approximation of the maximum clique e of a graph requires superpolynomial size monotone circuits, and give lower bounds for some net Boolean functions. Our best lower bound fi~r an NP function of n variables is exp (f2(n w4. (log n)~/~)), improving a recent result of exp (f2(nws')) due to Andreev.
A Practical Scheduling Algorithm to Achieve 100% Throughput in InputQueued Switches.
"... Input queueing is becoming increasingly used for highbandwidth switches and routers. In previous work, it was proved that it is possible to achieve 100 % throughput for inputqueued switches using a combination of virtual output queueing and a scheduling algorithm called LQF. However, this is only a ..."
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Cited by 126 (7 self)
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Input queueing is becoming increasingly used for highbandwidth switches and routers. In previous work, it was proved that it is possible to achieve 100 % throughput for inputqueued switches using a combination of virtual output queueing and a scheduling algorithm called LQF. However, this is only a theoretical result: LQF is too complex to implement in hardware. In this paper we introduce a new algorithm called Longest Port First (LPF), which is designed to overcome the complexity problems of LQF, and can be implemented in hardware at high speed. By giving preferential service based on queue lengths, we prove that LPF can achieve 100 % throughput.