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3,359
Community detection in graphs
, 2009
"... The modern science of networks has brought significant advances to our understanding of complex systems. One of the most relevant features of graphs representing real systems is community structure, or clustering, i. e. the organization of vertices in clusters, with many edges joining vertices of th ..."
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Cited by 801 (1 self)
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The modern science of networks has brought significant advances to our understanding of complex systems. One of the most relevant features of graphs representing real systems is community structure, or clustering, i. e. the organization of vertices in clusters, with many edges joining vertices of the same cluster and comparatively few edges joining vertices of different clusters. Such
Dynamic Bayesian Networks: Representation, Inference and Learning
, 2002
"... Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have bee ..."
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Cited by 758 (3 self)
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Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have been used for problems ranging from tracking planes and missiles to predicting the economy. However, HMMs
and KFMs are limited in their “expressive power”. Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) generalize HMMs by allowing the state space to be represented in factored form, instead of as a single discrete random variable. DBNs generalize KFMs by allowing arbitrary probability distributions, not just (unimodal) linearGaussian. In this thesis, I will discuss how to represent many different kinds of models as DBNs, how to perform exact and approximate inference in DBNs, and how to learn DBN models from sequential data.
In particular, the main novel technical contributions of this thesis are as follows: a way of representing
Hierarchical HMMs as DBNs, which enables inference to be done in O(T) time instead of O(T 3), where T is the length of the sequence; an exact smoothing algorithm that takes O(log T) space instead of O(T); a simple way of using the junction tree algorithm for online inference in DBNs; new complexity bounds on exact online inference in DBNs; a new deterministic approximate inference algorithm called factored frontier; an analysis of the relationship between the BK algorithm and loopy belief propagation; a way of
applying RaoBlackwellised particle filtering to DBNs in general, and the SLAM (simultaneous localization
and mapping) problem in particular; a way of extending the structural EM algorithm to DBNs; and a variety of different applications of DBNs. However, perhaps the main value of the thesis is its catholic presentation of the field of sequential data modelling.
Behavior recognition via sparse spatiotemporal features
 In VSPETS
, 2005
"... A common trend in object recognition is to detect and leverage the use of sparse, informative feature points. The use of such features makes the problem more manageable while providing increased robustness to noise and pose variation. In this work we develop an extension of these ideas to the spatio ..."
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Cited by 705 (4 self)
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A common trend in object recognition is to detect and leverage the use of sparse, informative feature points. The use of such features makes the problem more manageable while providing increased robustness to noise and pose variation. In this work we develop an extension of these ideas to the spatiotemporal case. For this purpose, we show that the direct 3D counterparts to commonly used 2D interest point detectors are inadequate, and we propose an alternative. Anchoring off of these interest points, we devise a recognition algorithm based on spatiotemporally windowed data. We present recognition results on a variety of datasets including both human and rodent behavior. 1.
Consistency of spectral clustering
, 2004
"... Consistency is a key property of statistical algorithms, when the data is drawn from some underlying probability distribution. Surprisingly, despite decades of work, little is known about consistency of most clustering algorithms. In this paper we investigate consistency of a popular family of spe ..."
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Cited by 567 (15 self)
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Consistency is a key property of statistical algorithms, when the data is drawn from some underlying probability distribution. Surprisingly, despite decades of work, little is known about consistency of most clustering algorithms. In this paper we investigate consistency of a popular family of spectral clustering algorithms, which cluster the data with the help of eigenvectors of graph Laplacian matrices. We show that one of the two of major classes of spectral clustering (normalized clustering) converges under some very general conditions, while the other (unnormalized), is only consistent under strong additional assumptions, which, as we demonstrate, are not always satisfied in real data. We conclude that our analysis provides strong evidence for the superiority of normalized spectral clustering in practical applications. We believe that methods used in our analysis will provide a basis for future exploration of Laplacianbased methods in a statistical setting.
Image retrieval: ideas, influences, and trends of the new age
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2008
"... We have witnessed great interest and a wealth of promise in contentbased image retrieval as an emerging technology. While the last decade laid foundation to such promise, it also paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, got many new people involved, and triggered stronger ass ..."
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Cited by 464 (13 self)
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We have witnessed great interest and a wealth of promise in contentbased image retrieval as an emerging technology. While the last decade laid foundation to such promise, it also paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, got many new people involved, and triggered stronger association of weakly related fields. In this article, we survey almost 300 key theoretical and empirical contributions in the current decade related to image retrieval and automatic image annotation, and in the process discuss the spawning of related subfields. We also discuss significant challenges involved in the adaptation of existing image retrieval techniques to build systems that can be useful in the real world. In retrospect of what has been achieved so far, we also conjecture what the future may hold for image retrieval research.
A framework for learning predictive structures from multiple tasks and unlabeled data
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2005
"... One of the most important issues in machine learning is whether one can improve the performance of a supervised learning algorithm by including unlabeled data. Methods that use both labeled and unlabeled data are generally referred to as semisupervised learning. Although a number of such methods ar ..."
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Cited by 440 (3 self)
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One of the most important issues in machine learning is whether one can improve the performance of a supervised learning algorithm by including unlabeled data. Methods that use both labeled and unlabeled data are generally referred to as semisupervised learning. Although a number of such methods are proposed, at the current stage, we still don’t have a complete understanding of their effectiveness. This paper investigates a closely related problem, which leads to a novel approach to semisupervised learning. Specifically we consider learning predictive structures on hypothesis spaces (that is, what kind of classifiers have good predictive power) from multiple learning tasks. We present a general framework in which the structural learning problem can be formulated and analyzed theoretically, and relate it to learning with unlabeled data. Under this framework, algorithms for structural learning will be proposed, and computational issues will be investigated. Experiments will be given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms in the semisupervised learning setting. 1.
Duplicate record detection: A survey
 TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING
, 2007
"... Often, in the real world, entities have two or more representations in databases. Duplicate records do not share a common key and/or they contain errors that make duplicate matching a dif cult task. Errors are introduced as the result of transcription errors, incomplete information, lack of standard ..."
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Cited by 427 (11 self)
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Often, in the real world, entities have two or more representations in databases. Duplicate records do not share a common key and/or they contain errors that make duplicate matching a dif cult task. Errors are introduced as the result of transcription errors, incomplete information, lack of standard formats or any combination of these factors. In this article, we present a thorough analysis of the literature on duplicate record detection. We cover similarity metrics that are commonly used to detect similar eld entries, and we present an extensive set of duplicate detection algorithms that can detect approximately duplicate records in a database. We also cover multiple techniques for improving the ef ciency and scalability of approximate duplicate detection algorithms. We conclude with a coverage of existing tools and with a brief discussion of the big open problems in the area.
Online Convex Programming and Generalized Infinitesimal Gradient Ascent
, 2003
"... Convex programming involves a convex set F R and a convex function c : F ! R. The goal of convex programming is to nd a point in F which minimizes c. In this paper, we introduce online convex programming. In online convex programming, the convex set is known in advance, but in each step of some ..."
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Cited by 288 (4 self)
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Convex programming involves a convex set F R and a convex function c : F ! R. The goal of convex programming is to nd a point in F which minimizes c. In this paper, we introduce online convex programming. In online convex programming, the convex set is known in advance, but in each step of some repeated optimization problem, one must select a point in F before seeing the cost function for that step. This can be used to model factory production, farm production, and many other industrial optimization problems where one is unaware of the value of the items produced until they have already been constructed. We introduce an algorithm for this domain, apply it to repeated games, and show that it is really a generalization of in nitesimal gradient ascent, and the results here imply that generalized in nitesimal gradient ascent (GIGA) is universally consistent.
An interiorpoint method for largescale l1regularized logistic regression
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2007
"... Logistic regression with ℓ1 regularization has been proposed as a promising method for feature selection in classification problems. In this paper we describe an efficient interiorpoint method for solving largescale ℓ1regularized logistic regression problems. Small problems with up to a thousand ..."
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Cited by 284 (8 self)
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Logistic regression with ℓ1 regularization has been proposed as a promising method for feature selection in classification problems. In this paper we describe an efficient interiorpoint method for solving largescale ℓ1regularized logistic regression problems. Small problems with up to a thousand or so features and examples can be solved in seconds on a PC; medium sized problems, with tens of thousands of features and examples, can be solved in tens of seconds (assuming some sparsity in the data). A variation on the basic method, that uses a preconditioned conjugate gradient method to compute the search step, can solve very large problems, with a million features and examples (e.g., the 20 Newsgroups data set), in a few minutes, on a PC. Using warmstart techniques, a good approximation of the entire regularization path can be computed much more efficiently than by solving a family of problems independently.