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382
Stochastic Network Calculus
, 2008
"... A basic calculus is presented for stochastic service guarantee analysis in communication networks. Central to the calculus are two definitions, maximum(virtual)backlogcentric (m.b.c) stochastic arrival curve and stochastic service curve, which respectively generalize arrival curve and service c ..."
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Cited by 116 (23 self)
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A basic calculus is presented for stochastic service guarantee analysis in communication networks. Central to the calculus are two definitions, maximum(virtual)backlogcentric (m.b.c) stochastic arrival curve and stochastic service curve, which respectively generalize arrival curve and service curve in the deterministic network calculus framework. With m.b.c stochastic arrival curve and stochastic service curve, various basic results are derived under the (min, +) algebra for the general case analysis, which are crucial to the development of stochastic network calculus. These results include (i) superposition of flows, (ii) concatenation of servers, (iii) output characterization, (iv) perflow service under aggregation, and (v) stochastic backlog and delay guarantees. In addition, to perform independent case analysis, stochastic strict server is defined, which uses an ideal service process and an impairment process to characterize a server. The concept of stochastic strict server not only allows us to improve the basic results (i) – (v) under the independent case, but also provides a convenient way to find the stochastic service curve of a serve. Moreover, an approach is introduced to find the m.b.c stochastic arrival curve of a flow and the stochastic service curve of a server.
A survey of Petri nets methods for controlled discrete event systems
 DISCRETE EVENT DYNAMIC SYSTEMS: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS
, 1997
"... This paper surveys recent research on the application of Petri net models to the analysis and synthesis of controllers for discrete event systems. Petri nets have been used extensively in applications such as automated manufacturing, and there exists a large body of tools for qualitative and quant ..."
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Cited by 100 (4 self)
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This paper surveys recent research on the application of Petri net models to the analysis and synthesis of controllers for discrete event systems. Petri nets have been used extensively in applications such as automated manufacturing, and there exists a large body of tools for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Petri nets. The goal of Petri net research in discrete event systems is to exploit the structural properties of Petri net models in computationally efficient algorithms for computing controls. We present an overview of the various models and problems formulated in the literature focusing on two particular models, the controlled Petri nets and the labeled nets. We describe two basic approaches for controller synthesis, based on state feedback and event feedback. We also discuss two efficient techniques for the online computation of the control law, namely the linear integer programming approach which takes advantage of the linear structure of the Petri net state transition equation, and pathbased algorithms which take advantage of the graphical structure of Petri net models. Extensions to timed models are briefly described. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future research.
On Deterministic Traffic Regulation and Service Guarantees: A Systematic Approach by Filtering
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 1997
"... In this paper, we develop a filtering theory for deterministic traffic regulation and service guarantees under the (min; +)algebra. We show that traffic regulators that generate fupper constrained outputs can be implemented optimally by a linear time invariant filter with the impulse response f ..."
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Cited by 81 (4 self)
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In this paper, we develop a filtering theory for deterministic traffic regulation and service guarantees under the (min; +)algebra. We show that traffic regulators that generate fupper constrained outputs can be implemented optimally by a linear time invariant filter with the impulse response f under the (min; +)algebra, where f is the subadditive closure defined in the paper. Analogous to the classical filtering theory, there is an associate calculus, including feedback, concatenation, "filter bank summation" and performance bounds. The calculus is also applicable to the recently developed concept of service curves that can be used for deriving deterministic service guarantees. Our filtering approach not only yields easier proofs for more general results than those in the literature, but also allows us to design traffic regulators via systematic methods such as concatenation, filter bank summation, linear system realization, and FIRIIR realization. We illustrate the use of ...
Maxplus algebra and system theory: Where we are and where to go now
 Annu. Rev. Control
, 1999
"... Abstract: More than sixteen years after the beginning of a linear theory for certain discrete event systems in which maxplus algebra and similar algebraic tools play a central role, this paper attempts to summarize some of the main achievements in an informal style based on examples. By comparison ..."
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Cited by 71 (19 self)
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Abstract: More than sixteen years after the beginning of a linear theory for certain discrete event systems in which maxplus algebra and similar algebraic tools play a central role, this paper attempts to summarize some of the main achievements in an informal style based on examples. By comparison with classical linear system theory, there are areas which are practically untouched, mostly because the corresponding mathematical tools are yet to be fabricated. This is the case of the geometric approach of systems which is known, in the classical theory, to provide another important insight to systemtheoretic and controlsynthesis problems, beside the algebraic machinery. A preliminary discussion of geometric aspects in the maxplus algebra and their use for system theory is proposed in the last part of the paper. Résumé: Plus de seize ans après le début d’une théorie linéaire de certains systèmes à événements discrets dans laquelle l’algèbre maxplus et autres outils algébriques assimilés jouent un rôle central, ce papier cherche àdécrire quelques uns des principaux résultats obtenus de façon informelle, en s’appuyant sur des exemples. Par comparaison avec la théorie classique des systèmes linéaires, il existe des domaines pratiquement vierges, surtout en raison du fait que les outils mathématiques correspondants restent à forger. C’est en particulier le cas de l’approche géométrique des systèmes qui, dans la théorie classique, est connue pour apporter un autre regard important sur les questions de théorie des systèmes et de synthèse de lois de commandes àcôté de la machinerie purement algébrique. Une discussion préliminaire sur les aspects géométriques de l’algèbre maxplus et leur utilité pour la théorie des systèmes est proposée dans la dernière partie du papier.
Duality and separation theorems in idempotent semimodules
 Linear Algebra and its Applications 379 (2004), 395–422. Also arXiv:math.FA/0212294
"... Abstract. We consider subsemimodules and convex subsets of semimodules over semirings with an idempotent addition. We introduce a nonlinear projection on subsemimodules: the projection of a point is the maximal approximation from below of the point in the subsemimodule. We use this projection to sep ..."
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Cited by 70 (22 self)
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Abstract. We consider subsemimodules and convex subsets of semimodules over semirings with an idempotent addition. We introduce a nonlinear projection on subsemimodules: the projection of a point is the maximal approximation from below of the point in the subsemimodule. We use this projection to separate a point from a convex set. We also show that the projection minimizes the analogue of Hilbert’s projective metric. We develop more generally a theory of dual pairs for idempotent semimodules. We obtain as a corollary duality results between the row and column spaces of matrices with entries in idempotent semirings. We illustrate the results by showing polyhedra and halfspaces over the maxplus semiring. 1.
An EndtoEnd Probabilistic Network Calculus with Moment Generating Functions
, 2006
"... Network calculus is a minplus system theory for performance evaluation of queuing networks. Its elegance stems from intuitive convolution formulas for concatenation of deterministic servers. Recent research dispenses with the worstcase assumptions of network calculus to develop a probabilistic equi ..."
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Cited by 66 (5 self)
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Network calculus is a minplus system theory for performance evaluation of queuing networks. Its elegance stems from intuitive convolution formulas for concatenation of deterministic servers. Recent research dispenses with the worstcase assumptions of network calculus to develop a probabilistic equivalent that benefits from statistical multiplexing. Significant achievements have been made, owing for example to the theory of effective bandwidths, however, the outstanding scalability set up by concatenation of deterministic servers has not been shown. This paper establishes a concise, probabilistic network calculus with moment generating functions. The presented work features closedform, endtoend, probabilistic performance bounds that achieve the objective of scaling linearly in the number of servers in series. The consistent application of moment generating functions put forth in this paper utilizes independence beyond the scope of current statistical multiplexing of flows. A relevant additional gain is demonstrated for tandem servers with independent crosstraffic.
Fault detection and diagnosis in distributed systems: an approach by partially stochastic Petri nets
 special issue on Hybrid Systems
, 1998
"... We address the problem of alarm correlation in large distributed systems. The key idea is to make use of the concurrence of events in order to separate and simplify the state estimation in a faulty network. Petri nets and their causality semantics are used to model concurrency. Special partially ..."
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Cited by 65 (11 self)
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We address the problem of alarm correlation in large distributed systems. The key idea is to make use of the concurrence of events in order to separate and simplify the state estimation in a faulty network. Petri nets and their causality semantics are used to model concurrency. Special partially stochastic Petri nets are developed, that establish some kind of equivalence between concurrence and independence. The diagnosis problem is defined as the computation of the most likely history of the net given a sequence of observed alarms. Solutions are provided in four contexts, with a gradual complexity on the structure of observations.
Theories and Models for Internet Quality of Service
, 2002
"... We survey recent advances in theories and models for Internet Quality of Service (QoS). We start with the theory of network calculus, which lays the foundation for support of deterministic performance guarantees in networks, and illustrate its applications to integrated services, differentiated serv ..."
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Cited by 64 (1 self)
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We survey recent advances in theories and models for Internet Quality of Service (QoS). We start with the theory of network calculus, which lays the foundation for support of deterministic performance guarantees in networks, and illustrate its applications to integrated services, differentiated services, and streaming media playback delays. We also present mechanisms and architecture for scalable support of guaranteed services in the Internet, based on the concept of a stateless core. Methods for scalable control operations are also briefly discussed. We then turn our attention to statistical performance guarantees, and describe several new probabilistic results that can be used for a statistical dimensioning of differentiated services. Lastly, we review recent proposals and results in supporting performance guarantees in a best effort context. These include models for elastic throughput guarantees based on TCP performance modeling, techniques for some quality of service differentiation without access control, and methods that allow an application to control the performance it receives, in the absence of network support.
System architecture evaluation using modular performance analysis: a case study
 INT J SOFTW TOOLS TECHNOL TRANSFER
, 2006
"... Performance analysis plays an increasingly important role in the design of embedded realtime systems. Timetomarket pressure in this domain is high while the available implementation technology is often pushed to its limit to minimize cost. This requires analysis of performance as early as possibl ..."
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Cited by 58 (15 self)
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Performance analysis plays an increasingly important role in the design of embedded realtime systems. Timetomarket pressure in this domain is high while the available implementation technology is often pushed to its limit to minimize cost. This requires analysis of performance as early as possible in the life cycle. Simulationbased techniques are often not sufficiently productive. We present an alternative, analytical, approach based on RealTime Calculus. Modular performance analysis is presented through a case study in which several candidate architectures are evaluated for a distributed incar radio navigation system. The analysis is efficient due to the high abstraction level of the
A programming model for timesynchronized distributed realtime systems
 In 13th IEEE Real Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, 2007. RTAS ’07
, 2007
"... Discreteevent (DE) models are formal system specifications that have analyzable deterministic behaviors. Using a global, consistent notion of time, DE components communicate via timestamped events. DE models have primarily been used in performance modeling and simulation, where time stamps are a m ..."
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Cited by 51 (32 self)
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Discreteevent (DE) models are formal system specifications that have analyzable deterministic behaviors. Using a global, consistent notion of time, DE components communicate via timestamped events. DE models have primarily been used in performance modeling and simulation, where time stamps are a modeling property bearing no relationship to real time during execution of the model. In this paper, we extend DE models with the capability of relating certain events to physical time. We propose a programming model, called PTIDES (Programming Temporally Integrated Distributed Embedded Systems), which has DE semantics, but with carefully chosen relations between model time and real time. Key to making this model effective is to ensure that constraints that guarantee determinacy in the semantics are preserved at runtime. To accomplish this, we give a distributed execution strategy that obeys DE semantics without the penalty of totally ordered executions based on time stamps. Our technique relies on having a distributed common notion of time, known to some precision. Based on causality analysis of DE models, we define relevant dependency and relevant orders to enable outoforder execution without compromising determinism and without requiring backtracking. 1