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137
Graphical models, exponential families, and variational inference
, 2008
"... The formalism of probabilistic graphical models provides a unifying framework for capturing complex dependencies among random variables, and building largescale multivariate statistical models. Graphical models have become a focus of research in many statistical, computational and mathematical fiel ..."
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Cited by 819 (28 self)
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The formalism of probabilistic graphical models provides a unifying framework for capturing complex dependencies among random variables, and building largescale multivariate statistical models. Graphical models have become a focus of research in many statistical, computational and mathematical fields, including bioinformatics, communication theory, statistical physics, combinatorial optimization, signal and image processing, information retrieval and statistical machine learning. Many problems that arise in specific instances — including the key problems of computing marginals and modes of probability distributions — are best studied in the general setting. Working with exponential family representations, and exploiting the conjugate duality between the cumulant function and the entropy for exponential families, we develop general variational representations of the problems of computing likelihoods, marginal probabilities and most probable configurations. We describe how a wide varietyof algorithms — among them sumproduct, cluster variational methods, expectationpropagation, mean field methods, maxproduct and linear programming relaxation, as well as conic programming relaxations — can all be understood in terms of exact or approximate forms of these variational representations. The variational approach provides a complementary alternative to Markov chain Monte Carlo as a general source of approximation methods for inference in largescale statistical models.
Constructing Free Energy Approximations and Generalized Belief Propagation Algorithms
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 2005
"... Important inference problems in statistical physics, computer vision, errorcorrecting coding theory, and artificial intelligence can all be reformulated as the computation of marginal probabilities on factor graphs. The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is an efficient way to solve these problems t ..."
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Cited by 585 (13 self)
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Important inference problems in statistical physics, computer vision, errorcorrecting coding theory, and artificial intelligence can all be reformulated as the computation of marginal probabilities on factor graphs. The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is an efficient way to solve these problems that is exact when the factor graph is a tree, but only approximate when the factor graph has cycles. We show that BP fixed points correspond to the stationary points of the Bethe approximation of the free energy for a factor graph. We explain how to obtain regionbased free energy approximations that improve the Bethe approximation, and corresponding generalized belief propagation (GBP) algorithms. We emphasize the conditions a free energy approximation must satisfy in order to be a “valid ” or “maxentnormal ” approximation. We describe the relationship between four different methods that can be used to generate valid approximations: the “Bethe method, ” the “junction graph method, ” the “cluster variation method, ” and the “region graph method.” Finally, we explain how to tell whether a regionbased approximation, and its corresponding GBP algorithm, is likely to be accurate, and describe empirical results showing that GBP can significantly outperform BP.
Collective classification in network data
, 2008
"... Numerous realworld applications produce networked data such as web data (hypertext documents connected via hyperlinks) and communication networks (people connected via communication links). A recent focus in machine learning research has been to extend traditional machine learning classification te ..."
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Cited by 178 (32 self)
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Numerous realworld applications produce networked data such as web data (hypertext documents connected via hyperlinks) and communication networks (people connected via communication links). A recent focus in machine learning research has been to extend traditional machine learning classification techniques to classify nodes in such data. In this report, we attempt to provide a brief introduction to this area of research and how it has progressed during the past decade. We introduce four of the most widely used inference algorithms for classifying networked data and empirically compare them on both synthetic and realworld data.
TreeBased Reparameterization Framework for Analysis of Belief Propagation and Related Algorithms
, 2001
"... We present a treebased reparameterization framework that provides a new conceptual view of a large class of algorithms for computing approximate marginals in graphs with cycles. This class includes the belief propagation or sumproduct algorithm [39, 36], as well as a rich set of variations and ext ..."
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Cited by 122 (20 self)
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We present a treebased reparameterization framework that provides a new conceptual view of a large class of algorithms for computing approximate marginals in graphs with cycles. This class includes the belief propagation or sumproduct algorithm [39, 36], as well as a rich set of variations and extensions of belief propagation. Algorithms in this class can be formulated as a sequence of reparameterization updates, each of which entails refactorizing a portion of the distribution corresponding to an acyclic subgraph (i.e., a tree). The ultimate goal is to obtain an alternative but equivalent factorization using functions that represent (exact or approximate) marginal distributions on cliques of the graph. Our framework highlights an important property of BP and the entire class of reparameterization algorithms: the distribution on the full graph is not changed. The perspective of treebased updates gives rise to a simple and intuitive characterization of the fixed points in terms of tree consistency. We develop interpretations of these results in terms of information geometry. The invariance of the distribution, in conjunction with the fixed point characterization, enables us to derive an exact relation between the exact marginals on an arbitrary graph with cycles, and the approximations provided by belief propagation, and more broadly, any algorithm that minimizes the Bethe free energy. We also develop bounds on this approximation error, which illuminate the conditions that govern their accuracy. Finally, we show how the reparameterization perspective extends naturally to more structured approximations (e.g., Kikuchi and variants [52, 37]) that operate over higher order cliques.
Finding deformable shapes using loopy belief propogation.
 In European Conference on Computer Vision,
, 2002
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Loopy Belief Propagation and Gibbs Measures
 In Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence
, 2002
"... We address the question of convergence in the loopy belief propagation (LBP) algorithm. ..."
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Cited by 103 (6 self)
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We address the question of convergence in the loopy belief propagation (LBP) algorithm.
Recovering Occlusion Boundaries from a Single Image
"... Occlusion reasoning, necessary for tasks such as navigation and object search, is an important aspect of everyday life and a fundamental problem in computer vision. We believe that the amazing ability of humans to reason about occlusions from one image is based on an intrinsically 3D interpretation. ..."
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Cited by 93 (10 self)
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Occlusion reasoning, necessary for tasks such as navigation and object search, is an important aspect of everyday life and a fundamental problem in computer vision. We believe that the amazing ability of humans to reason about occlusions from one image is based on an intrinsically 3D interpretation. In this paper, our goal is to recover the occlusion boundaries and depth ordering of freestanding structures in the scene. Our approach is to learn to identify and label occlusion boundaries using the traditional edge and region cues together with 3D surface and depth cues. Since some of these cues require good spatial support (i.e., a segmentation), we gradually create larger regions and use them to improve inference over the boundaries. Our experiments demonstrate the power of a scenebased approach to occlusion reasoning. 1.
On the Uniqueness of Loopy Belief Propagation Fixed Points
, 2004
"... We derive sufficient conditions for the uniqueness of loopy belief propagation fixed points. These conditions depend on both the structure of the graph and the strength of the potentials and naturally extend those for convexity of the Bethe free energy. We compare them with (a strengthened version o ..."
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Cited by 79 (2 self)
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We derive sufficient conditions for the uniqueness of loopy belief propagation fixed points. These conditions depend on both the structure of the graph and the strength of the potentials and naturally extend those for convexity of the Bethe free energy. We compare them with (a strengthened version of) conditions derived elsewhere for pairwise potentials. We discuss possible implications for convergent algorithms, as well as for other approximate free energies.