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141
Visibly pushdown languages
, 2004
"... Abstract. We study congruences on words in order to characterize the class of visibly pushdown languages (Vpl), a subclass of contextfree languages. For any language L, we define a natural congruence on words that resembles the syntactic congruence for regular languages, such that this congruence i ..."
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Cited by 199 (20 self)
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Abstract. We study congruences on words in order to characterize the class of visibly pushdown languages (Vpl), a subclass of contextfree languages. For any language L, we define a natural congruence on words that resembles the syntactic congruence for regular languages, such that this congruence is of finite index if, and only if, L is a Vpl. We then study the problem of finding canonical minimal deterministic automata for Vpls. Though Vpls in general do not have unique minimal automata, we consider a subclass of VPAs called kmodule singleentry VPAs that correspond to programs with recursive procedures without input parameters, and show that the class of wellmatched Vpls do indeed have unique minimal kmodule singleentry automata. We also give a polynomial time algorithm that minimizes such kmodule singleentry VPAs. 1 Introduction The class of visibly pushdown languages (Vpl), introduced in [1], is a subclassof contextfree languages accepted by pushdown automata in which the input letter determines the type of operation permitted on the stack. Visibly pushdown languages are closed under all boolean operations, and problems such as inclusion, that are undecidable for contextfree languages, are decidable for Vpl. Vpls are relevant to several applications that use contextfree languages suchas the modelchecking of software programs using their pushdown models [13]. Recent work has shown applications in other contexts: in modeling semanticsof effects in processing XML streams [4], in game semantics for programming languages [5], and in identifying larger classes of pushdown specifications thatadmit decidable problems for infinite games on pushdown graphs [6].
Adding nesting structure to words
 In Developments in Language Theory, LNCS 4036
, 2006
"... We propose the model of nested words for representation of data with both a linear ordering and a hierarchically nested matching of items. Examples of data with such dual linearhierarchical structure include executions of structured programs, annotated linguistic data, and HTML/XML documents. Neste ..."
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Cited by 122 (17 self)
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We propose the model of nested words for representation of data with both a linear ordering and a hierarchically nested matching of items. Examples of data with such dual linearhierarchical structure include executions of structured programs, annotated linguistic data, and HTML/XML documents. Nested words generalize both words and ordered trees, and allow both word and tree operations. We define nested word automata—finitestate acceptors for nested words, and show that the resulting class of regular languages of nested words has all the appealing theoretical properties that the classical regular word languages enjoys: deterministic nested word automata are as expressive as their nondeterministic counterparts; the class is closed under union, intersection, complementation, concatenation, Kleene*, prefixes, and language homomorphisms; membership, emptiness, language inclusion, and language equivalence are all decidable; and definability in monadic second order logic corresponds exactly to finitestate recognizability. We also consider regular languages of infinite nested words and show that the closure properties, MSOcharacterization, and decidability of decision problems carry over. The linear encodings of nested words give the class of visibly pushdown languages of words, and this class lies between balanced languages and deterministic contextfree languages. We argue that for algorithmic verification of structured programs, instead of viewing the program as a contextfree language over words, one should view it as a regular language of nested words (or equivalently, a visibly pushdown language), and this would allow model checking of many properties (such as stack inspection, prepost conditions) that are not expressible in existing specification logics. We also study the relationship between ordered trees and nested words, and the corresponding automata: while the analysis complexity of nested word automata is the same as that of classical tree automata, they combine both bottomup and topdown traversals, and enjoy expressiveness and succinctness benefits over tree automata. 1
Recursive Markov chains, stochastic grammars, and monotone systems of nonlinear equations
 IN STACS
, 2005
"... We define Recursive Markov Chains (RMCs), a class of finitely presented denumerable Markov chains, and we study algorithms for their analysis. Informally, an RMC consists of a collection of finitestate Markov chains with the ability to invoke each other in a potentially recursive manner. RMCs offer ..."
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Cited by 92 (13 self)
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We define Recursive Markov Chains (RMCs), a class of finitely presented denumerable Markov chains, and we study algorithms for their analysis. Informally, an RMC consists of a collection of finitestate Markov chains with the ability to invoke each other in a potentially recursive manner. RMCs offer a natural abstract model for probabilistic programs with procedures. They generalize, in a precise sense, a number of well studied stochastic models, including Stochastic ContextFree Grammars (SCFG) and MultiType Branching Processes (MTBP). We focus on algorithms for reachability and termination analysis for RMCs: what is the probability that an RMC started from a given state reaches another target state, or that it terminates? These probabilities are in general irrational, and they arise as (least) fixed point solutions to certain (monotone) systems of nonlinear equations associated with RMCs. We address both the qualitative problem of determining whether the probabilities are 0, 1 or inbetween, and
A Temporal Logic of Nested Calls and Returns
, 2004
"... Model checking of linear temporal logic (LTL) speci cations with respect to pushdown systems has been shown to be a useful tool for analysis of programs with potentially recursive procedures. LTL, however, can specify only regular properties, and properties such as correctness of procedures wit ..."
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Cited by 81 (16 self)
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Model checking of linear temporal logic (LTL) speci cations with respect to pushdown systems has been shown to be a useful tool for analysis of programs with potentially recursive procedures. LTL, however, can specify only regular properties, and properties such as correctness of procedures with respect to pre and post conditions, that require matching of calls and returns, are not regular. We introduce a temporal logic of calls and returns (CaRet) for speci cation and algorithmic veri cation of correctness requirements of structured programs. The formulas of CaRet are interpreted over sequences of propositional valuations tagged with special symbols call and ret. Besides the standard global temporal modalities, CaRet admits the abstractnext operator that allows a path to jump from a call to the matching return. This operator can be used to specify a variety of nonregular properties such as partial and total correctness of program blocks with respect to pre and post conditions. The abstract versions of the other temporal modalities can be used to specify regular properties of local paths within a procedure that skip over calls to other procedures. CaRet also admits the caller modality that jumps to the most recent pending call, and such caller modalities allow speci cation of a variety of security properties that involve inspection of the callstack. Even though verifying contextfree properties of pushdown systems is undecidable, we show that model checking CaRet formulas against a pushdown model is decidable. We present a tableau construction that reduces our model checking problem to the emptiness problem for a Buchi pushdown system. The complexity of model checking CaRet formulas is the same as that of checking LTL formulas, namely, ...
Model Checking Probabilistic Pushdown Automata
, 2004
"... We consider the model checking problem for probabilistic pushdown automata (pPDA) and properties expressible in various probabilistic logics. We start with properties that can be formulated as instances of a generalized random walk problem. We prove that both qualitative and quantitative model check ..."
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Cited by 79 (24 self)
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We consider the model checking problem for probabilistic pushdown automata (pPDA) and properties expressible in various probabilistic logics. We start with properties that can be formulated as instances of a generalized random walk problem. We prove that both qualitative and quantitative model checking for this class of properties and pPDA is decidable. Then we show that model checking for the qualitative fragment of the logic PCTL and pPDA is also decidable. Moreover, we develop an errortolerant model checking algorithm for general PCTL and the subclass of stateless pPDA. Finally, we consider the class of properties definable by deterministic B uchi automata, and show that both qualitative and quantitative model checking for pPDA is decidable. 1.
Recursive Markov decision processes and recursive stochastic games
 In Proc. of 32nd Int. Coll. on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP’05
, 2005
"... Abstract. We introduce Recursive Markov Decision Processes (RMDPs) and Recursive Simple Stochastic Games (RSSGs), and study the decidability and complexity of algorithms for their analysis and verification. These models extend Recursive Markov Chains (RMCs), introduced in [EY05a,EY05b] as a natural ..."
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Cited by 52 (11 self)
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Abstract. We introduce Recursive Markov Decision Processes (RMDPs) and Recursive Simple Stochastic Games (RSSGs), and study the decidability and complexity of algorithms for their analysis and verification. These models extend Recursive Markov Chains (RMCs), introduced in [EY05a,EY05b] as a natural model for verification of probabilistic procedural programs and related systems involving both recursion and probabilistic behavior. RMCs define a class of denumerable Markov chains with a rich theory generalizing that of stochastic contextfree grammars and multitype branching processes, and they are also intimately related to probabilistic pushdown systems. RMDPs & RSSGs extend RMCs with one controller or two adversarial players, respectively. Such extensions are useful for modeling nondeterministic and concurrent behavior, as well as modeling a system’s interactions with an environment. We provide a number of upper and lower bounds for deciding, given an RMDP (or RSSG) A and probability p, whether player 1 has a strategy to force termination at a desired exit with probability at least p. We also address “qualitative ” termination questions, where p = 1, and model checking questions. 1
Model Checking of Unrestricted Hierarchical State Machines
, 2001
"... . Hierarchical State Machines (HSMs) are a natural model for representing the behavior of software systems. In this paper, we investigate a variety of modelchecking problems for an extension of HSMs in which state machines are allowed to call each other recursively. 1 ..."
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Cited by 47 (6 self)
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. Hierarchical State Machines (HSMs) are a natural model for representing the behavior of software systems. In this paper, we investigate a variety of modelchecking problems for an extension of HSMs in which state machines are allowed to call each other recursively. 1
Algorithmic verification of recursive probabilistic state machines
 In Proc. 11th TACAS
, 2005
"... Abstract. Recursive Markov Chains (RMCs) ([EY04]) are a natural abstract model of procedural probabilistic programs and related systems involving recursion and probability. They succinctly define a class of denumerable Markov chains that generalize multitype branching (stochastic) processes. In thi ..."
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Cited by 43 (7 self)
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Abstract. Recursive Markov Chains (RMCs) ([EY04]) are a natural abstract model of procedural probabilistic programs and related systems involving recursion and probability. They succinctly define a class of denumerable Markov chains that generalize multitype branching (stochastic) processes. In this paper, we study the problem of model checking an RMC against a given ωregular specification. Namely, given an RMC A and a Büchi automaton B, we wish to know the probability that an execution of A is accepted by B. We establish a number of strong upper bounds, as well as lower bounds, both for qualitative problems (is the probability = 1, or = 0?), and for quantitative problems (is the probability ≥ p?, or, approximate the probability to within a desired precision). Among these, we show that qualitative model checking for general RMCs can be decided in PSPACE in A  and EXPTIME in B, and when A is either a singleexit RMC or when the total number of entries and exits in A is bounded, it can be decided in polynomial time in A. We then show that quantitative model checking can also be done in PSPACE in A, and in EXPSPACE in B. When B is deterministic, all our complexities in B  come down by one exponential. For lower bounds, we show that the qualitative model checking problem, even for a fixed RMC, is already EXPTIMEcomplete. On the other hand, even for simple reachability analysis, we showed in [EY04] that our PSPACE upper bounds in A can not be improved upon without a breakthrough on a wellknown open problem in the complexity of numerical computation. 1
On the decidability of temporal properties of probabilistic pushdown automata
 IN PROC. OF STACS’05
, 2005
"... We consider qualitative and quantitative modelchecking problems for probabilistic pushdown automata (pPDA) and various temporal logics. We prove that the qualitative and quantitative modelchecking problem for ωregular properties and pPDA is in 2EXPSPACE and 3EXPTIME, respectively. We also pro ..."
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Cited by 42 (11 self)
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We consider qualitative and quantitative modelchecking problems for probabilistic pushdown automata (pPDA) and various temporal logics. We prove that the qualitative and quantitative modelchecking problem for ωregular properties and pPDA is in 2EXPSPACE and 3EXPTIME, respectively. We also prove that modelchecking the qualitative fragment of the logic PECTL ∗ for pPDA is in 2EXPSPACE, and modelchecking the qualitative fragment of PCTL for pPDA is in EXPSPACE. Furthermore, modelchecking the qualitative fragment of PCTL is shown to be EXPTIMEhard even for stateless pPDA. Finally, we show that PCTL modelchecking is undecidable for pPDA, and PCTL + modelchecking is undecidable even for stateless pPDA.
Quantitative analysis of probabilistic pushdown automata: . . .
, 2005
"... Probabilistic pushdown automata (pPDA) have been identified as a natural model for probabilistic programs with rcursive procedure calls. Previous works considered the decidability and complexity of the modelchecking problem for pPDA and various probabilistic temporal logics. In this paper we concen ..."
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Cited by 40 (15 self)
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Probabilistic pushdown automata (pPDA) have been identified as a natural model for probabilistic programs with rcursive procedure calls. Previous works considered the decidability and complexity of the modelchecking problem for pPDA and various probabilistic temporal logics. In this paper we concentrate on computing the expected values and variances of various random variables defined over runs of a given probabilistic pushdown automaton. In particular, we show how to compute the expected accumulated reward and the expected gain for certain classes of reward functions. Using these results, we show how to analyze various quantitative properties of pPDA that are not expressible in conventional probabilistic temporal logics.