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**1 - 1**of**1**### Dispelling the Quantum Spooks – a Clue that

"... It is well-known that Bell’s Theorem and other No Hidden Variable theorems have a “retrocausal loophole”, because they assume that the values of pre-existing hidden variables are independent of future mea-surement settings. (This is often referred to, misleadingly, as the as-sumption of “free will”. ..."

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It is well-known that Bell’s Theorem and other No Hidden Variable theorems have a “retrocausal loophole”, because they assume that the values of pre-existing hidden variables are independent of future mea-surement settings. (This is often referred to, misleadingly, as the as-sumption of “free will”.) However, it seems to have gone unnoticed until recently that a violation of this assumption is a straightforward consequence of time-symmetry, given an understanding of the quanti-zation of light that would have seemed natural to Einstein after 1905. The new argument shows precisely why quantization makes a differ-ence, and why time-symmetry alone does not imply retrocausality, in the classical context. It is true that later developments in quantum theory provide a way to avoid retrocausality, without violating time-symmetry; but this escape route relies on the “ontic ” conception of the wave function that Einstein rejected. Had this new argument been noticed much sooner, then, it seems likely that retrocausality would have been regarded as the default option for hidden variables theories (a fact that would then have seemed confirmed by Bell’s Theorem and the No Hidden Variable theorems). This paper presents these ideas at a level intended to be accessible to general readers. 1 Einstein’s dream Late in his life, Einstein told Max Born that he couldn’t take quantum mechanics seriously, “because it cannot be reconciled with the idea that physics should represent a reality in time and space, free from spooky actions at a distance.”[1] Most physicists think of this as the sad lament of an old giant, beached on the wrong side of history – unable to accept the revolution in physics that he himself had done so much to foment, decades before, with his 1905 discovery that light is absorbed in discrete “quanta”.