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165
A comparison of structural CSP decomposition methods
 Artificial Intelligence
, 2000
"... We compare tractable classes of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). We first give a uniform presentation of the major structural CSP decomposition methods. We then introduce a new class of tractable CSPs based on the concept of hypertree decomposition recently developed in Database Theory. We i ..."
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Cited by 174 (26 self)
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We compare tractable classes of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). We first give a uniform presentation of the major structural CSP decomposition methods. We then introduce a new class of tractable CSPs based on the concept of hypertree decomposition recently developed in Database Theory. We introduce a framework for comparing parametric decompositionbased methods according to tractability criteria and compare the most relevant methods. We show that the method of hypertree decomposition dominates the others in the case of general (nonbinary) CSPs.
ConjunctiveQuery Containment and Constraint Satisfaction
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1998
"... Conjunctivequery containment is recognized as a fundamental problem in database query evaluation and optimization. At the same time, constraint satisfaction is recognized as a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence. What do conjunctivequery containment and constraint satisfaction have in c ..."
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Cited by 164 (14 self)
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Conjunctivequery containment is recognized as a fundamental problem in database query evaluation and optimization. At the same time, constraint satisfaction is recognized as a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence. What do conjunctivequery containment and constraint satisfaction have in common? Our main conceptual contribution in this paper is to point out that, despite their very different formulation, conjunctivequery containment and constraint satisfaction are essentially the same problem. The reason is that they can be recast as the following fundamental algebraic problem: given two finite relational structures A and B, is there a homomorphism h : A ! B? As formulated above, the homomorphism problem is uniform in the sense that both relational structures A and B are part of the input. By fixing the structure B, one obtains the following nonuniform problem: given a finite relational structure A, is there a homomorphism h : A ! B? In general, nonuniform tractability results do not uniformize. Thus, it is natural to ask: which tractable cases of nonuniform tractability results for constraint satisfaction and conjunctivequery containment do uniformize? Our main technical contribution in this paper is to show that several cases of tractable nonuniform constraint satisfaction problems do indeed uniformize. We exhibit three nonuniform tractability results that uniformize and, thus, give rise to polynomialtime solvable cases of constraint satisfaction and conjunctivequery containment.
Taming the infinite chase: Query answering under expressive relational constraints
 In Proc. of KR 2008
, 2008
"... The chase algorithm is a fundamental tool for query evaluation and for testing query containment under tuplegenerating dependencies (TGDs) and equalitygenerating dependencies (EGDs). So far, most of the research on this topic has focused on cases where the chase procedure terminates. This paper in ..."
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Cited by 104 (16 self)
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The chase algorithm is a fundamental tool for query evaluation and for testing query containment under tuplegenerating dependencies (TGDs) and equalitygenerating dependencies (EGDs). So far, most of the research on this topic has focused on cases where the chase procedure terminates. This paper introduces expressive classes of TGDs defined via syntactic restrictions: guarded TGDs (GTGDs) and weakly guarded sets of TGDs (WGTGDs). For these classes, the chase procedure is not guaranteed to terminate and thus may have an infinite outcome. Nevertheless, we prove that the problems of conjunctivequery answering and query containment under such TGDs are decidable. We provide decision procedures and tight complexity bounds for these problems. Then we show how EGDs can be incorporated into our results by providing conditions under which EGDs do not harmfully interact with TGDs and do not affect the decidability and complexity of query answering. We show applications of the aforesaid classes of constraints to the problem of answering conjunctive queries in FLogic Lite, an objectoriented ontology language, and in some tractable Description Logics. 1.
Pure Nash Equilibria: Hard and Easy Games
"... In this paper we investigate complexity issues related to pure Nash equilibria of strategic games. We show that, even in very restrictive settings, determining whether a game has a pure Nash Equilibrium is NPhard, while deciding whether a game has a strong Nash equilibrium is Stcomplete. We then s ..."
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Cited by 81 (4 self)
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In this paper we investigate complexity issues related to pure Nash equilibria of strategic games. We show that, even in very restrictive settings, determining whether a game has a pure Nash Equilibrium is NPhard, while deciding whether a game has a strong Nash equilibrium is Stcomplete. We then study practically relevant restrictions that lower the complexity. In particular, we are interested in quantitative and qualitative restrictions of the way each player's move depends on moves of other players. We say that a game has small neighborhood if the &quot; utility function for each player depends only on (the actions of) a logarithmically small number of other players, The dependency structure of a game G can he expressed by a graph G(G) or by a hypergraph II(G). Among other results, we show that if jC has small neighborhood and if II(G) has botmdecl hypertree width (or if G(G) has bounded treewidth), then finding pure Nash and Pareto equilibria is feasible in polynomial time. If the game is graphical, then these problems are LOGCFLcomplete and thus in the class _NC ~ of highly parallelizable problems. 1 Introduction and Overview of Results The theory of strategic games and Nash equilibria has important applications in economics and decision making [31, 2]. Determining whether Nash equilibria exist, and effectively computing
Xpath leashed
 IN ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2007
"... This survey gives an overview of formal results on the XML query language XPath. We identify several important fragments of XPath, focusing on subsets of XPath 1.0. We then give results on the expressiveness of XPath and its fragments compared to other formalisms for querying trees, algorithms and c ..."
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Cited by 52 (3 self)
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This survey gives an overview of formal results on the XML query language XPath. We identify several important fragments of XPath, focusing on subsets of XPath 1.0. We then give results on the expressiveness of XPath and its fragments compared to other formalisms for querying trees, algorithms and complexity bounds for evaluation of XPath queries, and static analysis of XPath queries.
New Results on Monotone Dualization and Generating Hypergraph Transversals
 SIAM JOURNAL ON COMPUTING
, 2002
"... We consider the problem of dualizing a monotone CNF (equivalently, computing all minimal transversals of a hypergraph), whose associated decision problem is a prominent open problem in NPcompleteness. We present a number of new polynomial time resp. outputpolynomial time results for significant ..."
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Cited by 51 (12 self)
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We consider the problem of dualizing a monotone CNF (equivalently, computing all minimal transversals of a hypergraph), whose associated decision problem is a prominent open problem in NPcompleteness. We present a number of new polynomial time resp. outputpolynomial time results for significant cases, which largely advance the tractability frontier and improve on previous results. Furthermore, we show that duality of two monotone CNFs can be disproved with limited nondeterminism. More precisely, this is feasible in polynomial time with O(log² n/log log n) suitably guessed bits. This result sheds new light on the complexity of this important problem.
Constraint solving via fractional edge covers
 In Proceedings of the of the 17th Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
, 2006
"... Many important combinatorial problems can be modelled as constraint satisfaction problems, hence identifying polynomialtime solvable classes of constraint satisfaction problems received a lot of attention. In this paper, we are interested in structural properties that can make the problem tractable ..."
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Cited by 51 (9 self)
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Many important combinatorial problems can be modelled as constraint satisfaction problems, hence identifying polynomialtime solvable classes of constraint satisfaction problems received a lot of attention. In this paper, we are interested in structural properties that can make the problem tractable. So far, the largest structural class that is known to be polynomialtime solvable is the class of bounded hypertree width instances introduced by Gottlob et al. [20]. Here we identify a new class of polynomialtime solvable instances: those having bounded fractional edge cover number. Combining hypertree width and fractional edge cover number, we then introduce the notion of fractional hypertree width. We prove that constraint satisfaction problems with bounded fractional hypertree width can be solved in polynomial time (provided that a the tree decomposition is given in the input). We also prove that certain parameterized constraint satisfaction, homomorphism, and embedding problems are fixedparameter tractable on instances having bounded fractional hypertree width. 1.
When is the evaluation of conjunctive queries tractable
 In Proceedings of the 33rd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2001
"... zINRIARocquencourt Abstract The evaluation of conjunctive queries is hard both with respect to its combined complexity (NPcomplete) and its parameterized complexity (W[1]complete). It becomes tractable (PTIME for combined complexity, FPT for parameterized complexity), when the underlying graphs o ..."
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Cited by 42 (5 self)
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zINRIARocquencourt Abstract The evaluation of conjunctive queries is hard both with respect to its combined complexity (NPcomplete) and its parameterized complexity (W[1]complete). It becomes tractable (PTIME for combined complexity, FPT for parameterized complexity), when the underlying graphs of the conjunctive queries have bounded treewidth [2]. We show that, in some sense, this is optimal both with respect to combined and parameterized complexity: For every class C of graphs, the evaluation of all conjunctive queries whose underlying graph is in C is tractable if, and only if, C has bounded treewidth. A technical result of independent interest is that the colored grid homomorphism problem is NPcomplete and, if parameterized by the grid size, W[1]complete. 1. Introduction Conjunctive queries are relational database queries expressed by formulas of firstorder logic that are of the form
Width parameters beyond treewidth and their applications
 Computer Journal
, 2007
"... Besides the very successful concept of treewidth (see [Bodlaender, H. and Koster, A. (2007) Combinatorial optimisation on graphs of bounded treewidth. These are special issues on Parameterized Complexity]), many concepts and parameters measuring the similarity or dissimilarity of structures compare ..."
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Cited by 40 (0 self)
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Besides the very successful concept of treewidth (see [Bodlaender, H. and Koster, A. (2007) Combinatorial optimisation on graphs of bounded treewidth. These are special issues on Parameterized Complexity]), many concepts and parameters measuring the similarity or dissimilarity of structures compared to trees have been born and studied over the past years. These concepts and parameters have proved to be useful tools in many applications, especially in the design of efficient algorithms. Our presented novel look at the contemporary developments of these ‘width ’ parameters in combinatorial structures delivers—besides traditional treewidth and derived dynamic programming schemes—also a number of other useful parameters like branchwidth, rankwidth (cliquewidth) or hypertreewidth. In this contribution, we demonstrate how ‘width ’ parameters of graphs and generalized structures (such as matroids or hypergraphs), can be used to improve the design of parameterized algorithms and the structural analysis in other applications on an abstract level.