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295
Large margin methods for structured and interdependent output variables
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2005
"... Learning general functional dependencies between arbitrary input and output spaces is one of the key challenges in computational intelligence. While recent progress in machine learning has mainly focused on designing flexible and powerful input representations, this paper addresses the complementary ..."
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Cited by 612 (12 self)
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Learning general functional dependencies between arbitrary input and output spaces is one of the key challenges in computational intelligence. While recent progress in machine learning has mainly focused on designing flexible and powerful input representations, this paper addresses the complementary issue of designing classification algorithms that can deal with more complex outputs, such as trees, sequences, or sets. More generally, we consider problems involving multiple dependent output variables, structured output spaces, and classification problems with class attributes. In order to accomplish this, we propose to appropriately generalize the wellknown notion of a separation margin and derive a corresponding maximummargin formulation. While this leads to a quadratic program with a potentially prohibitive, i.e. exponential, number of constraints, we present a cutting plane algorithm that solves the optimization problem in polynomial time for a large class of problems. The proposed method has important applications in areas such as computational biology, natural language processing, information retrieval/extraction, and optical character recognition. Experiments from various domains involving different types of output spaces emphasize the breadth and generality of our approach.
The Relationship Between PrecisionRecall and ROC Curves
 In ICML ’06: Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on Machine learning
, 2006
"... Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are commonly used to present results for binary decision problems in machine learning. However, when dealing with highly skewed datasets, PrecisionRecall (PR) curves give a more informative picture of an algorithm’s performance. We show that a deep conn ..."
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Cited by 403 (4 self)
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Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are commonly used to present results for binary decision problems in machine learning. However, when dealing with highly skewed datasets, PrecisionRecall (PR) curves give a more informative picture of an algorithm’s performance. We show that a deep connection exists between ROC space and PR space, such that a curve dominates in ROC space if and only if it dominates in PR space. A corollary is the notion of an achievable PR curve, which has properties much like the convex hull in ROC space; we show an efficient algorithm for computing this curve. Finally, we also note differences in the two types of curves are significant for algorithm design. For example, in PR space it is incorrect to linearly interpolate between points. Furthermore, algorithms that optimize the area under the ROC curve are not guaranteed to optimize the area under the PR curve. 1.
A support vector method for optimizing average precision
 In SIGIR ’07
, 2007
"... Machine learning is commonly used to improve ranked retrieval systems. Due to computational difficulties, few learning techniques have been developed to directly optimize for mean average precision (MAP), despite its widespread use in evaluating such systems. Existing approaches optimizing MAP ei ..."
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Cited by 191 (7 self)
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Machine learning is commonly used to improve ranked retrieval systems. Due to computational difficulties, few learning techniques have been developed to directly optimize for mean average precision (MAP), despite its widespread use in evaluating such systems. Existing approaches optimizing MAP either do not find a globally optimal solution, or are computationally expensive. In contrast, we present a general SVM learning algorithm that efficiently finds a globally optimal solution to a straightforward relaxation of MAP. We evaluate our approach using the TREC 9 and TREC 10 Web Track corpora (WT10g), comparing against SVMs optimized for accuracy and ROCArea. In most cases we show our method to produce statistically significant improvements in MAP scores.
Learning to rank with nonsmooth cost functions
 In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS) 20
, 2006
"... The quality measures used in information retrieval are particularly difficult to optimize directly, since they depend on the model scores only through the sorted order of the documents returned for a given query. Thus, the derivatives of the cost with respect to the model parameters are either zero ..."
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Cited by 164 (11 self)
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The quality measures used in information retrieval are particularly difficult to optimize directly, since they depend on the model scores only through the sorted order of the documents returned for a given query. Thus, the derivatives of the cost with respect to the model parameters are either zero, or are undefined. In this paper, we propose a class of simple, flexible algorithms, called LambdaRank, which avoids these difficulties by working with implicit cost functions. We describe LambdaRank using neural network models, although the idea applies to any differentiable function class. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the resulting implicit cost function to be convex, and we show that the general method has a simple mechanical interpretation. We demonstrate significantly improved accuracy, over a stateoftheart ranking algorithm, on several datasets. We also show that LambdaRank provides a method for significantly speeding up the training phase of that ranking algorithm. Although this paper is directed towards ranking, the proposed method can be extended to any nonsmooth and multivariate cost functions. 1
A boosting algorithm for information retrieval
 In Proceedings of SIGIR’07
, 2007
"... In this paper we address the issue of learning to rank for document retrieval. In the task, a model is automatically created with some training data and then is utilized for ranking of documents. The goodness of a model is usually evaluated with performance measures such as MAP (Mean Average Precisi ..."
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Cited by 159 (22 self)
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In this paper we address the issue of learning to rank for document retrieval. In the task, a model is automatically created with some training data and then is utilized for ranking of documents. The goodness of a model is usually evaluated with performance measures such as MAP (Mean Average Precision) and NDCG (Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain). Ideally a learning algorithm would train a ranking model that could directly optimize the performance measures with respect to the training data. Existing methods, however, are only able to train ranking models by minimizing loss functions loosely related to the performance measures. For example, Ranking SVM and RankBoost train ranking models by minimizing classification errors on instance pairs. To deal with the problem, we propose a novel learning algorithm within the framework of boosting, which can minimize a loss function directly defined on the performance measures. Our algorithm, referred to as AdaRank, repeatedly constructs ‘weak rankers ’ on the basis of reweighted training data and finally linearly combines the weak rankers for making ranking predictions. We prove that the training process of AdaRank is exactly that of enhancing the performance measure used. Experimental results on four benchmark datasets show that AdaRank significantly outperforms the baseline methods of BM25, Ranking SVM, and RankBoost.
Social tag prediction
 In SIGIR ’08
, 2008
"... In this paper, we look at the “social tag prediction ” problem. Given a set of objects, and a set of tags applied to those objects by users, can we predict whether a given tag could/should be applied to a particular object? We investigated this question using one of the largest crawls of the social ..."
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Cited by 112 (2 self)
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In this paper, we look at the “social tag prediction ” problem. Given a set of objects, and a set of tags applied to those objects by users, can we predict whether a given tag could/should be applied to a particular object? We investigated this question using one of the largest crawls of the social bookmarking system del.icio.us gathered to date. For URLs in del.icio.us, we predicted tags based on page text, anchor text, surrounding hosts, and other tags applied to the URL. We found an entropybased metric which captures the generality of a particular tag and informs an analysis of how well that tag can be predicted. We also found that tagbased association rules can produce very highprecision predictions as well as giving deeper understanding into the relationships between tags. Our results have implications for both the study of tagging systems as potential information retrieval tools, and for the design of such systems.
A Review of Kernel Methods in Machine Learning
, 2006
"... We review recent methods for learning with positive definite kernels. All these methods formulate learning and estimation problems as linear tasks in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) associated with a kernel. We cover a wide range of methods, ranging from simple classifiers to sophisticate ..."
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Cited by 95 (4 self)
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We review recent methods for learning with positive definite kernels. All these methods formulate learning and estimation problems as linear tasks in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) associated with a kernel. We cover a wide range of methods, ranging from simple classifiers to sophisticated methods for estimation with structured data.
A Discriminative Latent Model of Object Classes and Attributes
"... Abstract. We present a discriminatively trained model for joint modelling of object class labels (e.g. “person”, “dog”, “chair”, etc.) and their visual attributes (e.g. “has head”, “furry”, “metal”, etc.). We treat attributes of an object as latent variables in our model and capture the correlations ..."
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Cited by 86 (5 self)
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Abstract. We present a discriminatively trained model for joint modelling of object class labels (e.g. “person”, “dog”, “chair”, etc.) and their visual attributes (e.g. “has head”, “furry”, “metal”, etc.). We treat attributes of an object as latent variables in our model and capture the correlations among attributes using an undirected graphical model built from training data. The advantage of our model is that it allows us to infer object class labels using the information of both the test image itself and its (latent) attributes. Our model unifies object class prediction and attribute prediction in a principled framework. It is also flexible enough to deal with different performance measurements. Our experimental results provide quantitative evidence that attributes can improve object naming. 1
Bundle Methods for Regularized Risk Minimization
"... A wide variety of machine learning problems can be described as minimizing a regularized risk functional, with different algorithms using different notions of risk and different regularizers. Examples include linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Gaussian Processes, Logistic Regression, Conditional ..."
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Cited by 78 (4 self)
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A wide variety of machine learning problems can be described as minimizing a regularized risk functional, with different algorithms using different notions of risk and different regularizers. Examples include linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Gaussian Processes, Logistic Regression, Conditional Random Fields (CRFs), and Lasso amongst others. This paper describes the theory and implementation of a scalable and modular convex solver which solves all these estimation problems. It can be parallelized on a cluster of workstations, allows for datalocality, and can deal with regularizers such as L1 and L2 penalties. In addition to the unified framework we present tight convergence bounds, which show that our algorithm converges in O(1/ɛ) steps to ɛ precision for general convex problems and in O(log(1/ɛ)) steps for continuously differentiable problems. We demonstrate the performance of our general purpose solver on a variety of publicly available datasets.
A scalable modular convex solver for regularized risk minimization
 In KDD. ACM
, 2007
"... A wide variety of machine learning problems can be described as minimizing a regularized risk functional, with different algorithms using different notions of risk and different regularizers. Examples include linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Logistic Regression, Conditional Random Fields (CRFs ..."
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Cited by 78 (15 self)
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A wide variety of machine learning problems can be described as minimizing a regularized risk functional, with different algorithms using different notions of risk and different regularizers. Examples include linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Logistic Regression, Conditional Random Fields (CRFs), and Lasso amongst others. This paper describes the theory and implementation of a highly scalable and modular convex solver which solves all these estimation problems. It can be parallelized on a cluster of workstations, allows for datalocality, and can deal with regularizers such as ℓ1 and ℓ2 penalties. At present, our solver implements 20 different estimation problems, can be easily extended, scales to millions of observations, and is up to 10 times faster than specialized solvers for many applications. The open source code is freely available as part of the ELEFANT toolbox.