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156
Randomized Gossip Algorithms
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 2006
"... Motivated by applications to sensor, peertopeer, and ad hoc networks, we study distributed algorithms, also known as gossip algorithms, for exchanging information and for computing in an arbitrarily connected network of nodes. The topology of such networks changes continuously as new nodes join a ..."
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Cited by 522 (5 self)
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Motivated by applications to sensor, peertopeer, and ad hoc networks, we study distributed algorithms, also known as gossip algorithms, for exchanging information and for computing in an arbitrarily connected network of nodes. The topology of such networks changes continuously as new nodes join and old nodes leave the network. Algorithms for such networks need to be robust against changes in topology. Additionally, nodes in sensor networks operate under limited computational, communication, and energy resources. These constraints have motivated the design of “gossip ” algorithms: schemes which distribute the computational burden and in which a node communicates with a randomly chosen neighbor. We analyze the averaging problem under the gossip constraint for an arbitrary network graph, and find that the averaging time of a gossip algorithm depends on the second largest eigenvalue of a doubly stochastic matrix characterizing the algorithm. Designing the fastest gossip algorithm corresponds to minimizing this eigenvalue, which is a semidefinite program (SDP). In general, SDPs cannot be solved in a distributed fashion; however, exploiting problem structure, we propose a distributed subgradient method that solves the optimization problem over the network. The relation of averaging time to the second largest eigenvalue naturally relates it to the mixing time of a random walk with transition probabilities derived from the gossip algorithm. We use this connection to study the performance and scaling of gossip algorithms on two popular networks: Wireless Sensor Networks, which are modeled as Geometric Random Graphs, and the Internet graph under the socalled Preferential Connectivity (PC) model.
Fast Linear Iterations for Distributed Averaging
 Systems and Control Letters
, 2003
"... We consider the problem of finding a linear iteration that yields distributed averaging consensus over a network, i.e., that asymptotically computes the average of some initial values given at the nodes. When the iteration is assumed symmetric, the problem of finding the fastest converging linear ..."
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Cited by 429 (13 self)
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We consider the problem of finding a linear iteration that yields distributed averaging consensus over a network, i.e., that asymptotically computes the average of some initial values given at the nodes. When the iteration is assumed symmetric, the problem of finding the fastest converging linear iteration can be cast as a semidefinite program, and therefore efficiently and globally solved. These optimal linear iterations are often substantially faster than several common heuristics that are based on the Laplacian of the associated graph.
A scheme for robust distributed sensor fusion based on average consensus
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION PROCESSING IN SENSOR NETWORKS (IPSN
, 2005
"... We consider a network of distributed sensors, where each sensor takes a linear measurement of some unknown parameters, corrupted by independent Gaussian noises. We propose a simple distributed iterative scheme, based on distributed average consensus in the network, to compute the maximumlikelihoo ..."
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Cited by 250 (3 self)
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We consider a network of distributed sensors, where each sensor takes a linear measurement of some unknown parameters, corrupted by independent Gaussian noises. We propose a simple distributed iterative scheme, based on distributed average consensus in the network, to compute the maximumlikelihood estimate of the parameters. This scheme doesn’t involve explicit pointtopoint message passing or routing; instead, it diffuses information across the network by updating each node’s data with a weighted average of its neighbors ’ data (they maintain the same data structure). At each step, every node can compute a local weighted leastsquares estimate, which converges to the global maximumlikelihood solution. This scheme is robust to unreliable communication links. We show that it works in a network with dynamically changing topology, provided that the infinitely occurring communication graphs are jointly connected.
Distributed average consensus with leastmeansquare deviation
 Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing
, 2005
"... We consider a stochastic model for distributed average consensus, which arises in applications such as load balancing for parallel processors, distributed coordination of mobile autonomous agents, and network synchronization. In this model, each node updates its local variable with a weighted averag ..."
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Cited by 201 (5 self)
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We consider a stochastic model for distributed average consensus, which arises in applications such as load balancing for parallel processors, distributed coordination of mobile autonomous agents, and network synchronization. In this model, each node updates its local variable with a weighted average of its neighbors ’ values, and each new value is corrupted by an additive noise with zero mean. The quality of consensus can be measured by the total meansquare deviation of the individual variables from their average, which converges to a steadystate value. We consider the problem of finding the (symmetric) edge weights that result in the least meansquare deviation in steady state. We show that this problem can be cast as a convex optimization problem, so the global solution can be found efficiently. We describe some computational methods for solving this problem, and compare the weights and the meansquare deviations obtained by this method and several other weight design methods.
Gossip algorithms for distributed signal processing
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE
, 2010
"... Gossip algorithms are attractive for innetwork processing in sensor networks because they do not require any specialized routing, there is no bottleneck or single point of failure, and they are robust to unreliable wireless network conditions. Recently, there has been a surge of activity in the co ..."
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Cited by 115 (29 self)
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Gossip algorithms are attractive for innetwork processing in sensor networks because they do not require any specialized routing, there is no bottleneck or single point of failure, and they are robust to unreliable wireless network conditions. Recently, there has been a surge of activity in the computer science, control, signal processing, and information theory communities, developing faster and more robust gossip algorithms and deriving theoretical performance guarantees. This paper presents an overview of recent work in the area. We describe convergence rate results, which are related to the number of transmittedmessages and thus the amount of energy consumed in the network for gossiping. We discuss issues related to gossiping over wireless links, including the effects of quantization and noise, and we illustrate the use of gossip algorithms for canonical signal processing tasks including distributed estimation, source localization, and compression.
Random sampling from a search engine’s index
 In Proceedings of the 15th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW
, 2006
"... We revisit a problem introduced by Bharat and Broder almost a decade ago: how to sample random pages from the corpus of documents indexed by a search engine, using only the search engine’s public interface? Such a primitive is particularly useful in creating objective benchmarks for search engines. ..."
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Cited by 94 (6 self)
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We revisit a problem introduced by Bharat and Broder almost a decade ago: how to sample random pages from the corpus of documents indexed by a search engine, using only the search engine’s public interface? Such a primitive is particularly useful in creating objective benchmarks for search engines. The technique of Bharat and Broder suffers from a wellrecorded bias: it favors long documents. In this paper we introduce two novel sampling algorithms: a lexiconbased algorithm and a random walk algorithm. Our algorithms produce biased samples, but each sample is accompanied by a weight, which represents its bias. The samples, in conjunction with the weights, are then used to simulate nearuniform samples. To this end, we resort to four wellknown Monte Carlo simulation methods: rejection sampling, importance sampling, the MetropolisHastings algorithm, and the Maximum Degree method. The limited access to search engines force our algorithms to use bias weights that are only “approximate”. We characterize analytically the effect of approximate bias weights on Monte Carlo methods and conclude that our algorithms are guaranteed to produce nearuniform samples from the search engine’s corpus. Our study of approximate Monte Carlo methods could be of independent interest. Experiments on a corpus of 2.4 million documents substantiate our analytical findings and show that our algorithms do not have significant bias towards long documents. We use our algorithms to collect comparative statistics about the corpora of the Google, MSN Search, and Yahoo! search engines.
A Decentralized Algorithm for Spectral Analysis
, 2004
"... In many large network settings, such as computer networks, social networks, or hyperlinked text documents, much information can be obtained from the network’s spectral properties. However, traditional centralized approaches for computing eigenvectors struggle with at least two obstacles: the data ma ..."
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Cited by 93 (1 self)
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In many large network settings, such as computer networks, social networks, or hyperlinked text documents, much information can be obtained from the network’s spectral properties. However, traditional centralized approaches for computing eigenvectors struggle with at least two obstacles: the data may be difficult to obtain (both due to technical reasons and because of privacy concerns), and the sheer size of the networks makes the computation expensive. A decentralized, distributed algorithm addresses both of these obstacles: it utilizes the computational power of all nodes in the network and their ability to communicate, thus speeding up the computation with the network size. And as each node knows its incident edges, the data collection problem is avoided as well. Our main result is a simple decentralized algorithm for computing the top k eigenvectors of a symmetric weighted adjacency matrix, and a proof that it converges essentially in O(τmix log 2 n) rounds of communication and computation, where τmix is the mixing time of a random walk on the network. An additional contribution of our work is a decentralized way of actually detecting convergence, and diagnosing the current error. Our protocol scales well, in that the amount of computation performed at any node in any one round, and the sizes of messages sent, depend polynomially on k, but not at all on the (typically much larger) number n of nodes.
Communication Constraints in the Average Consensus Problem
, 2007
"... The interrelationship between control and communication theory is becoming of fundamental importance in many distributed control systems, such as the coordination of a team of autonomous agents. In such a problem, communication constraints impose limits on the achievable control performance. We cons ..."
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Cited by 82 (20 self)
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The interrelationship between control and communication theory is becoming of fundamental importance in many distributed control systems, such as the coordination of a team of autonomous agents. In such a problem, communication constraints impose limits on the achievable control performance. We consider as instance of coordination the consensus problem. The aim of the paper is to characterize the relationship between the amount of information exchanged by the agents and the rate of convergence to the consensus. We show that timeinvariant communication networks with circulant symmetries yield slow convergence if the amount of information exchanged by the agents does not scale well with their number. On the other hand, we show that randomly timevarying communication networks allow very fast convergence rates. We also show that, by adding logarithmic quantized data links to timeinvariant networks with symmetries, control performance significantly improves with little growth of the required communication effort.
The fastest mixing Markov process on a graph and a connection to a maximum variance unfolding problem
 SIAM REVIEW
, 2006
"... We consider a Markov process on a connected graph, with edges labeled with transition rates between the adjacent vertices. The distribution of the Markov process converges to the uniform distribution at a rate determined by the second smallest eigenvalue λ2 of the Laplacian of the weighted graph. I ..."
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Cited by 67 (5 self)
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We consider a Markov process on a connected graph, with edges labeled with transition rates between the adjacent vertices. The distribution of the Markov process converges to the uniform distribution at a rate determined by the second smallest eigenvalue λ2 of the Laplacian of the weighted graph. In this paper we consider the problem of assigning transition rates to the edges so as to maximize λ2 subject to a linear constraint on the rates. This is the problem of finding the fastest mixing Markov process (FMMP) on the graph. We show that the FMMP problem is a convex optimization problem, which can in turn be expressed as a semidefinite program, and therefore effectively solved numerically. We formulate a dual of the FMMP problem and show that it has a natural geometric interpretation as a maximum variance unfolding (MVU) problem, i.e., the problem of choosing a set of points to be as far apart as possible, measured by their variance, while respecting local distance constraints. This MVU problem is closely related to a problem recently proposed by Weinberger and Saul as a method for “unfolding ” highdimensional data that lies on a lowdimensional manifold. The duality between the FMMP and MVU problems sheds light on both problems, and allows us to characterize and, in some cases, find optimal solutions.
Minimizing effective resistance of a graph
 SIAM Review
, 2005
"... Abstract. The effective resistance between two nodes of a weighted graph is the electrical resistance seen between the nodes of a resistor network with branch conductances given by the edge weights. The effective resistance comes up in many applications and fields in addition to electrical network a ..."
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Cited by 64 (5 self)
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Abstract. The effective resistance between two nodes of a weighted graph is the electrical resistance seen between the nodes of a resistor network with branch conductances given by the edge weights. The effective resistance comes up in many applications and fields in addition to electrical network analysis, including, for example, Markov chains and continuoustime averaging networks. In this paper we study the problem of allocating edge weights on a given graph in order to minimize the total effective resistance, i.e., the sum of the resistances between all pairs of nodes. We show that this is a convex optimization problem, and can be solved efficiently either numerically, or, in some cases, analytically. We show that optimal allocation of the edge weights can reduce the total effective resistance of the graph (compared to uniform weights) by a factor that grows unboundedly with the size of the graph. We show that among all graphs with n nodes, the path has the largest value of optimal total effective resistance, and the complete graph the least. 1. Introduction. Let N be a network with n nodes and m edges, i.e., an undirected graph (V, E) with V  = n, E  = m, and nonnegative weights on the edges. We call the weight on edge l its conductance, and denote it by gl. The effective resistance between a pair of nodes i and j, denoted Rij, is the electrical resistance measured across nodes i and j, when the network represents an electrical circuit with each edge (or branch, in the terminology of electrical circuits) a resistor with (electrical) conductance gl. In other