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16
A completeness theorem for Kleene algebras and the algebra of regular events
 Information and Computation
, 1994
"... We givea nitary axiomatization of the algebra of regular events involving only equations and equational implications. Unlike Salomaa's axiomatizations, the axiomatization given here is sound for all interpretations over Kleene algebras. 1 ..."
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Cited by 250 (28 self)
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We givea nitary axiomatization of the algebra of regular events involving only equations and equational implications. Unlike Salomaa's axiomatizations, the axiomatization given here is sound for all interpretations over Kleene algebras. 1
Kleene algebra with tests
 Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
, 1997
"... Abstract. We investigate conditions under which a given Kleene algebra with tests is isomorphic to an algebra of binary relations. Two simple separation properties are identified that, along with starcontinuity, are sufficient for nonstandard relational representation. An algebraic condition is ide ..."
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Cited by 153 (29 self)
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Abstract. We investigate conditions under which a given Kleene algebra with tests is isomorphic to an algebra of binary relations. Two simple separation properties are identified that, along with starcontinuity, are sufficient for nonstandard relational representation. An algebraic condition is identified that is necessary and sufficient for the construction to produce a standard representation. 1
On Hoare Logic and Kleene Algebra with Tests
"... We show that Kleene algebra with tests (KAT) subsumes propositional Hoare logic (PHL). Thus the specialized syntax and deductive apparatus of Hoare logic are inessential and can be replaced by simple equational reasoning. In addition, we show that all relationally valid inference rules are derivable ..."
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Cited by 59 (13 self)
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We show that Kleene algebra with tests (KAT) subsumes propositional Hoare logic (PHL). Thus the specialized syntax and deductive apparatus of Hoare logic are inessential and can be replaced by simple equational reasoning. In addition, we show that all relationally valid inference rules are derivable in KAT and that deciding the relational validity of such rules is PSPACEcomplete.
Certification of compiler optimizations using Kleene algebra with tests
 STUCKEY (EDS.), PROC. RST INTERNAT. CONF. COMPUTATIONAL LOGIC (CL2000), LECTURE NOTES IN ARTI CIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 2000
"... We use Kleene algebra with tests to verify a wide assortment ofcommon compiler optimizations, including dead code elimination, common subexpression elimination, copy propagation, loop hoisting, induction variable elimination, instruction scheduling, algebraic simplification, loop unrolling, elimin ..."
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Cited by 45 (13 self)
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We use Kleene algebra with tests to verify a wide assortment ofcommon compiler optimizations, including dead code elimination, common subexpression elimination, copy propagation, loop hoisting, induction variable elimination, instruction scheduling, algebraic simplification, loop unrolling, elimination of redundant instructions, array bounds check elimination, and introduction of sentinels. In each of these cases, we give a formal equational proof of the correctness of the optimizing transformation.
Kleene algebra with tests: Completeness and decidability
 In Proc. of 10th International Workshop on Computer Science Logic (CSL’96
, 1996
"... Abstract. Kleene algebras with tests provide a rigorous framework for equational speci cation and veri cation. They have been used successfully in basic safety analysis, sourcetosource program transformation, and concurrency control. We prove the completeness of the equational theory of Kleene alg ..."
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Cited by 37 (16 self)
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Abstract. Kleene algebras with tests provide a rigorous framework for equational speci cation and veri cation. They have been used successfully in basic safety analysis, sourcetosource program transformation, and concurrency control. We prove the completeness of the equational theory of Kleene algebra with tests and *continuous Kleene algebra with tests over languagetheoretic and relational models. We also show decidability. Cohen's reduction of Kleene algebra with hypotheses of the form r = 0 to Kleene algebra without hypotheses is simpli ed and extended to handle Kleene algebras with tests. 1
Kleene algebra with tests and program schematology
, 2001
"... The theory of flowchart schemes has a rich history going back to Ianov [6]; see Manna [22] for an elementary exposition. A central question in the theory of program schemes is scheme equivalence. Manna presents several examples of equivalence proofs that work by simplifying the schemes using various ..."
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Cited by 23 (8 self)
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The theory of flowchart schemes has a rich history going back to Ianov [6]; see Manna [22] for an elementary exposition. A central question in the theory of program schemes is scheme equivalence. Manna presents several examples of equivalence proofs that work by simplifying the schemes using various combinatorial transformation rules. In this paper we present a purely algebraic approach to this problem using Kleene algebra with tests (KAT). Instead of transforming schemes directly using combinatorial graph manipulation, we regard them as a certain kind of automaton on abstract traces. We prove a generalization of Kleene’s theorem and use it to construct equivalent expressions in the language of KAT. We can then give a purely equational proof of the equivalence of the resulting expressions. We prove soundness of the method and give a detailed example of its use. 1
Parikh’s theorem in commutative Kleene algebra
 In Logic in Computer Science
, 1999
"... Parikh’s Theorem says that the commutative image of every context free language is the commutative image of some regular set. Pilling has shown that this theorem is essentially a statement about least solutions of polynomial inequalities. We prove the following general theorem of commutative Kleene ..."
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Cited by 20 (0 self)
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Parikh’s Theorem says that the commutative image of every context free language is the commutative image of some regular set. Pilling has shown that this theorem is essentially a statement about least solutions of polynomial inequalities. We prove the following general theorem of commutative Kleene algebra, of which Parikh’s and Pilling’s theorems are special cases: Every finite system of polynomial inequalities fi(x1�:::�xn) xi, 1 i n, over a commutative Kleene algebra K has a unique least solution in K n; moreover, the components of the solution are given by polynomials in the coefficients of the fi. We also give a closedform solution in terms of the Jacobian matrix of the system. 1
On Action Algebras
, 1993
"... Action algebras have been proposed by Pratt [22] as an alternative to Kleene algebras [8, 9]. Their chief advantage over Kleene algebras is that they form a finitelybased equational variety, so the essential properties of (iteration) are captured purely equationally. However, unlike Kleene algebras ..."
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Cited by 15 (1 self)
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Action algebras have been proposed by Pratt [22] as an alternative to Kleene algebras [8, 9]. Their chief advantage over Kleene algebras is that they form a finitelybased equational variety, so the essential properties of (iteration) are captured purely equationally. However, unlike Kleene algebras, they are not closed under the formation of matrices, which renders them inapplicable in certain constructions in automata theory and the design and analysis of algorithms. In this paper we consider a class of action algebras called action lattices. An action lattice is simply an action algebra that forms a lattice under its natural order. Action lattices combine the best features of Kleene algebras and action algebras: like action algebras, they form a finitelybased equational variety; like Kleene algebras, they are closed under the formation of matrices. Moreover, they form the largest subvariety of action algebras for which this is true. All common examples of Kleene algebras appearing in automata theory, logics of programs, relational algebra, and the design and analysis of algorithms are action lattices.
On the Complexity of Reasoning in Kleene Algebra
 Information and Computation
, 1997
"... We study the complexity of reasoning in Kleene algebra and *continuous Kleene algebra in the presence of extra equational assumptions E; that is, the complexity of deciding the validity of universal Horn formulas E ! s = t, where E is a finite set of equations. We obtain various levels of complexi ..."
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Cited by 13 (5 self)
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We study the complexity of reasoning in Kleene algebra and *continuous Kleene algebra in the presence of extra equational assumptions E; that is, the complexity of deciding the validity of universal Horn formulas E ! s = t, where E is a finite set of equations. We obtain various levels of complexity based on the form of the assumptions E. Our main results are: for * continuous Kleene algebra, ffl if E contains only commutativity assumptions pq = qp, the problem is \Pi 0 1 complete; ffl if E contains only monoid equations, the problem is \Pi 0 2 complete; ffl for arbitrary equations E, the problem is \Pi 1 1  complete. The last problem is the universal Horn theory of the *continuous Kleene algebras. This resolves an open question of Kozen (1994). 1 Introduction Kleene algebra (KA) is fundamental and ubiquitous in computer science. Since its invention by Kleene in 1956, it has arisen in various forms in program logic and semantics [17, 28], relational algebra [27, 32], aut...
Motion Planning for Metamorphic Systems: Feasibility, Decidability and Distributed Reconfiguration
"... In this article we address a number of issues related to motion planning and analysis of rectangular metamorphic robotic systems. We first present a distributed algorithm for reconfiguration that applies to a relatively large subclass of configurations, called horizontally convex configurations. We ..."
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Cited by 9 (6 self)
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In this article we address a number of issues related to motion planning and analysis of rectangular metamorphic robotic systems. We first present a distributed algorithm for reconfiguration that applies to a relatively large subclass of configurations, called horizontally convex configurations. We then discuss several fundamental questions in the analysis of metamorphic systems. In particular the following two questions are shown to be decidable: (i) whether a given set of motion rules maintains connectivity; (ii) whether a goal configuration is reachable from a given initial configuration (at specified locations). In the general case in which each module has an internal state, the following is shown to be undecidable: given a set of motion rules, whether there exists a certain type of configuration called a uniform straightchain configuration that yields a disconnected configuration.