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Three denials of time in the interpretation of canonical gravity
 Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics
, 2012
"... Abstract The analysis of the temporal structure of canonical general relativity and the connected interpretational questions with regard to the role of time within the theory both rest upon the need to respect the fundamentally dual role of the Hamiltonian constraints found within the formalism. An ..."
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Abstract The analysis of the temporal structure of canonical general relativity and the connected interpretational questions with regard to the role of time within the theory both rest upon the need to respect the fundamentally dual role of the Hamiltonian constraints found within the formalism. Any consistent philosophical approach towards the theory must pay dues to the role of these constraints in both generating dynamics, in the context of phase space, and generating unphysical symmetry transformations, in the context of a hypersurface embedded within a solution. A first denial of time in the terms of a position of reductive temporal relationalism can be shown to be troubled by failure on the first count, and a second denial in the terms of Machian temporal relationalism can be found to be hampered by failure on the second. A third denial of time, consistent with both the of the Hamiltonian constraints roles, is constituted by the implementation of a scheme for constructing observables in terms of correlations and leads to a radical Parmenidean timelessness. The motivation for and implications of each of these three denials are investigated.
Problem of Time and Background Independence: the Individual Facets
"... I lay out the problem of time facets as arising piecemeal from a number of aspects of background independence. Almost all of these already have simpler classical counterparts. This approach can be viewed as a facet by facet completion of the observation that Barbourtype relationalism is a backgroun ..."
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I lay out the problem of time facets as arising piecemeal from a number of aspects of background independence. Almost all of these already have simpler classical counterparts. This approach can be viewed as a facet by facet completion of the observation that Barbourtype relationalism is a background independent precursor to 2 of the 9 facets. That completion proceeds in an order dictated by the additional layers of mathematical structure required to support each. Moreover, the ‘nonlinear nature ’ of the interactions between the Problem of Time facets renders a joint study of them mandatory. The current article is none the less a useful prequel via gaining a conceptual understanding of each facet, prior to embarking on rendering some combinations of facets consistent and what further obstructions arise in attempting such joint considerations. See [20, 21, 26] for up to date studies of this more complicated joint version. I also identify new facets (threading based), subfacets (of observables and of reconstructions) and further source of variety from how far down the levels of mathematical structure these facets extend. 1