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PolynomialTime Algorithms for Prime Factorization and Discrete Logarithms on a Quantum Computer
 SIAM J. on Computing
, 1997
"... A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time by at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. ..."
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Cited by 1278 (4 self)
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A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time by at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. This paper considers factoring integers and finding discrete logarithms, two problems which are generally thought to be hard on a classical computer and which have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. Efficient randomized algorithms are given for these two problems on a hypothetical quantum computer. These algorithms take a number of steps polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored.
Algorithms for Quantum Computation: Discrete Logarithms and Factoring
, 1994
"... A computer is generally considered to be a universal computational device; i.e., it is believed able to simulate any physical computational device with a cost in computation time of at most a polynomial factol: It is not clear whether this is still true when quantum mechanics is taken into consider ..."
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Cited by 1107 (5 self)
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A computer is generally considered to be a universal computational device; i.e., it is believed able to simulate any physical computational device with a cost in computation time of at most a polynomial factol: It is not clear whether this is still true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. Several researchers, starting with David Deutsch, have developed models for quantum mechanical computers and have investigated their computational properties. This paper gives Las Vegas algorithms for finding discrete logarithms and factoring integers on a quantum computer that take a number of steps which is polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored. These two problems are generally considered hard on a classical computer and have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. (We thus give the first examples of quantum cryptanulysis.)
Quantum complexity theory
 in Proc. 25th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, ACM
, 1993
"... Abstract. In this paper we study quantum computation from a complexity theoretic viewpoint. Our first result is the existence of an efficient universal quantum Turing machine in Deutsch’s model of a quantum Turing machine (QTM) [Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A, 400 (1985), pp. 97–117]. This constructi ..."
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Cited by 574 (5 self)
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Abstract. In this paper we study quantum computation from a complexity theoretic viewpoint. Our first result is the existence of an efficient universal quantum Turing machine in Deutsch’s model of a quantum Turing machine (QTM) [Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A, 400 (1985), pp. 97–117]. This construction is substantially more complicated than the corresponding construction for classical Turing machines (TMs); in fact, even simple primitives such as looping, branching, and composition are not straightforward in the context of quantum Turing machines. We establish how these familiar primitives can be implemented and introduce some new, purely quantum mechanical primitives, such as changing the computational basis and carrying out an arbitrary unitary transformation of polynomially bounded dimension. We also consider the precision to which the transition amplitudes of a quantum Turing machine need to be specified. We prove that O(log T) bits of precision suffice to support a T step computation. This justifies the claim that the quantum Turing machine model should be regarded as a discrete model of computation and not an analog one. We give the first formal evidence that quantum Turing machines violate the modern (complexity theoretic) formulation of the Church–Turing thesis. We show the existence of a problem, relative to an oracle, that can be solved in polynomial time on a quantum Turing machine, but requires superpolynomial time on a boundederror probabilistic Turing machine, and thus not in the class BPP. The class BQP of languages that are efficiently decidable (with small errorprobability) on a quantum Turing machine satisfies BPP ⊆ BQP ⊆ P ♯P. Therefore, there is no possibility of giving a mathematical proof that quantum Turing machines are more powerful than classical probabilistic Turing machines (in the unrelativized setting) unless there is a major breakthrough in complexity theory.
Strengths and weaknesses of quantum computing
, 1996
"... Recently a great deal of attention has focused on quantum computation following a sequence of results [4, 16, 15] suggesting that quantum computers are more powerful than classical probabilistic computers. Following Shor’s result that factoring and the extraction of discrete logarithms are both solv ..."
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Cited by 381 (10 self)
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Recently a great deal of attention has focused on quantum computation following a sequence of results [4, 16, 15] suggesting that quantum computers are more powerful than classical probabilistic computers. Following Shor’s result that factoring and the extraction of discrete logarithms are both solvable in quantum polynomial time, it is natural to ask whether all of NP can be efficiently solved in quantum polynomial time. In this paper, we address this question by proving that relative to an oracle chosen uniformly at random, with probability 1, the class NP cannot be solved on a quantum Turing machine in time o(2 n/2). We also show that relative to a permutation oracle chosen uniformly at random, with probability 1, the class NP ∩ co–NP cannot be solved on a quantum Turing machine in time o(2 n/3). The former bound is tight since recent work of Grover [13] shows how to accept the class NP relative to any oracle on a quantum computer in time O(2 n/2).
Quantum Circuit Complexity
, 1993
"... We study a complexity model of quantum circuits analogous to the standard (acyclic) Boolean circuit model. It is shown that any function computable in polynomial time by a quantum Turing machine has a polynomialsize quantum circuit. This result also enables us to construct a universal quantum compu ..."
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Cited by 319 (1 self)
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We study a complexity model of quantum circuits analogous to the standard (acyclic) Boolean circuit model. It is shown that any function computable in polynomial time by a quantum Turing machine has a polynomialsize quantum circuit. This result also enables us to construct a universal quantum computer which can simulate, with a polynomial factor slowdown, a broader class of quantum machines than that considered by Bernstein and Vazirani [BV93], thus answering an open question raised in [BV93]. We also develop a theory of quantum communication complexity, and use it as a tool to prove that the majority function does not have a linearsize quantum formula. Keywords. Boolean circuit complexity, communication complexity, quantum communication complexity, quantum computation AMS subject classifications. 68Q05, 68Q15 1 This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant CCR9301430. 1 Introduction One of the most intriguing questions in computation theroy ...
Quantum circuits with mixed states
 in Proc. 30th STOC
, 1998
"... Current formal models for quantum computation deal only with unitary gates operating on “pure quantum states”. In these models it is difficult or impossible to deal formally with several central issues: measurements in the middle of the computation; decoherence and noise, using probabilistic subrout ..."
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Cited by 141 (7 self)
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Current formal models for quantum computation deal only with unitary gates operating on “pure quantum states”. In these models it is difficult or impossible to deal formally with several central issues: measurements in the middle of the computation; decoherence and noise, using probabilistic subroutines, and more. It turns out, that the restriction to unitary gates and pure states is unnecessary. In this paper we generalize the formal model of quantum circuits to a model in which the state can be a general quantum state, namely a mixed state, or a “density matrix”, and the gates can be general quantum operations, not necessarily unitary. The new model is shown to be equivalent in computational power to the standard one, and the problems mentioned above essentially disappear. The main result in this paper is a solution for the subroutine problem. The general function that a quantum circuit outputs is a probabilistic function. However, the question of using probabilistic functions as subroutines was not previously dealt with, the reason being that in the language of pure states, this simply can not be done. We define a natural notion of using general subroutines, and show that using general subroutines does not strengthen the model. As an example of the advantages of analyzing quantum complexity using density matrices, we prove a simple lower bound on depth of circuits that compute probabilistic functions. Finally, we deal with the question of inaccurate quantum computation with mixed states. Using the so called “trace metric ” on density matrices, we show how to keep track of errors in the new model.
A modular functor which is universal for quantum computation
 Comm. Math. Phys
"... Abstract: We show that the topological modular functor from Witten–Chern–Simons theory is universal for quantum computation in the sense that a quantum circuit computation can be efficiently approximated by an intertwining action of a braid on the functor’s state space. A computational model based o ..."
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Cited by 117 (18 self)
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Abstract: We show that the topological modular functor from Witten–Chern–Simons theory is universal for quantum computation in the sense that a quantum circuit computation can be efficiently approximated by an intertwining action of a braid on the functor’s state space. A computational model based on Chern–Simons theory at a fifth root of unity is defined and shown to be polynomially equivalent to the quantum circuit model. The chief technical advance: the density of the irreducible sectors of the Jones representation has topological implications which will be considered elsewhere. 1.
Quantuminspired Evolutionary Algorithm for a Class of Combinatorial Optimization
 IEEE TRANS. EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
, 2002
"... This paper proposes a novel evolutionary algorithm inspired by quantum computing, called a quantuminspired evolutionary algorithm (QEA), which is based on the concept and principles of quantum computing, such as a quantum bit and superposition of states. Like other evolutionary algorithms, QEA is a ..."
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Cited by 116 (7 self)
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This paper proposes a novel evolutionary algorithm inspired by quantum computing, called a quantuminspired evolutionary algorithm (QEA), which is based on the concept and principles of quantum computing, such as a quantum bit and superposition of states. Like other evolutionary algorithms, QEA is also characterized by the representation of the individual, the evaluation function, and the population dynamics. However, instead of binary, numeric, or symbolic representation, QEA uses a Qbit, defined as the smallest unit of information, for the probabilistic representation and a Qbit individual as a string of Qbits. A Qgate is introduced as a variation operator to drive the individuals toward better solutions. To demonstrate its effectiveness and applicability, experiments are carried out on the knapsack problem, which is a wellknown combinatorial optimization problem. The results show that QEA performs well, even with a small population, without premature convergence as compared to the conventional genetic algorithm.