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Blobworld: A System for RegionBased Image Indexing and Retrieval
 In Third International Conference on Visual Information Systems
, 1999
"... . Blobworld is a system for image retrieval based on finding coherent image regions which roughly correspond to objects. Each image is automatically segmented into regions ("blobs") with associated color and texture descriptors. Querying is based on the attributes of one or two regions of ..."
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Cited by 363 (4 self)
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. Blobworld is a system for image retrieval based on finding coherent image regions which roughly correspond to objects. Each image is automatically segmented into regions ("blobs") with associated color and texture descriptors. Querying is based on the attributes of one or two regions of interest, rather than a description of the entire image. In order to make largescale retrieval feasible, we index the blob descriptions using a tree. Because indexing in the highdimensional feature space is computationally prohibitive, we use a lowerrank approximation to the highdimensional distance. Experiments show encouraging results for both querying and indexing. 1 Introduction From a user's point of view, the performance of an information retrieval system can be measured by the quality and speed with which it answers the user's information need. Several factors contribute to overall performance:  the time required to run each individual query,  the quality (precision/recall) of each i...
External Memory Algorithms and Data Structures
, 1998
"... Data sets in large applications are often too massive to fit completely inside the computer's internal memory. The resulting input/output communication (or I/O) between fast internal memory and slower external memory (such as disks) can be a major performance bottleneck. In this paper, we surve ..."
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Cited by 360 (23 self)
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Data sets in large applications are often too massive to fit completely inside the computer's internal memory. The resulting input/output communication (or I/O) between fast internal memory and slower external memory (such as disks) can be a major performance bottleneck. In this paper, we survey the state of the art in the design and analysis of external memory algorithms and data structures (which are sometimes referred to as "EM" or "I/O" or "outofcore" algorithms and data structures). EM algorithms and data structures are often designed and analyzed using the parallel disk model (PDM). The three machineindependent measures of performance in PDM are the number of I/O operations, the CPU time, and the amount of disk space. PDM allows for multiple disks (or disk arrays) and parallel CPUs, and it can be generalized to handle tertiary storage and hierarchical memory. We discuss several important paradigms for how to solve batched and online problems efficiently in external memory. Programming tools and environments are available for simplifying the programming task. The TPIE system (Transparent Parallel I/O programming Environment) is both easy to use and efficient in terms of execution speed. We report on some experiments using TPIE in the domain of spatial databases. The newly developed EM algorithms and data structures that incorporate the paradigms we discuss are significantly faster than methods currently used in practice.
Similarity Indexing with the SStree
 In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Data Engineering
, 1996
"... jain0ece.ucsd.edu ..."
Dynamic Queries for Visual Information Seeking
 IEEE Software
, 1994
"... Dynamic queries are a novel approach to information seeking that may enable users to cope with information overload. They allow users to see an overview of the database, rapidly (100 msec updates) explore and conveniently filter out unwanted information. Users fly through information spaces by incre ..."
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Cited by 299 (35 self)
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Dynamic queries are a novel approach to information seeking that may enable users to cope with information overload. They allow users to see an overview of the database, rapidly (100 msec updates) explore and conveniently filter out unwanted information. Users fly through information spaces by incrementally adjusting a query (with sliders, buttons, and other filters) while continuously viewing the changing results. Dynamic queries on the chemical table of elements, computer directories, and a real estate database were built and tested in three separate exploratory experiments. These results show statistically significant performance improvements and user enthusiasm more commonly seen with video games. Widespread application seems possible but research issues remain in database and display algorithms, and user interface design. Challenges include methods for rapidly displaying and changing many points, colors, and areas; multidimensional pointing; incorporation of sound and visual displ...
Efficient collision detection using bounding volume hierarchies of kdops
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 1998
"... Abstract—Collision detection is of paramount importance for many applications in computer graphics and visualization. Typically, the input to a collision detection algorithm is a large number of geometric objects comprising an environment, together with a set of objects moving within the environment ..."
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Cited by 289 (4 self)
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Abstract—Collision detection is of paramount importance for many applications in computer graphics and visualization. Typically, the input to a collision detection algorithm is a large number of geometric objects comprising an environment, together with a set of objects moving within the environment. In addition to determining accurately the contacts that occur between pairs of objects, one needs also to do so at realtime rates. Applications such as haptic forcefeedback can require over 1,000 collision queries per second. In this paper, we develop and analyze a method, based on boundingvolume hierarchies, for efficient collision detection for objects moving within highly complex environments. Our choice of bounding volume is to use a “discrete orientation polytope” (“kdop”), a convex polytope whose facets are determined by halfspaces whose outward normals come from a small fixed set of k orientations. We compare a variety of methods for constructing hierarchies (“BVtrees”) of bounding kdops. Further, we propose algorithms for maintaining an effective BVtree of kdops for moving objects, as they rotate, and for performing fast collision detection using BVtrees of the moving objects and of the environment. Our algorithms have been implemented and tested. We provide experimental evidence showing that our approach yields substantially faster collision detection than previous methods. Index Terms—Collision detection, intersection searching, bounding volume hierarchies, discrete orientation polytopes, bounding boxes, virtual reality, virtual environments. 1
Shooting Stars in the Sky: An Online Algorithm for Skyline Queries
 In VLDB
, 2002
"... Skyline queries ask for a set of interesting points from a potentially large set of data points. If we are traveling, for instance, a restaurant might be interesting if there is no other restaurant which is nearer, cheaper, and has better food. Skyline queries retrieve all such interesting restauran ..."
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Cited by 280 (0 self)
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Skyline queries ask for a set of interesting points from a potentially large set of data points. If we are traveling, for instance, a restaurant might be interesting if there is no other restaurant which is nearer, cheaper, and has better food. Skyline queries retrieve all such interesting restaurants so that the user can choose the most promising one. In this paper, we present a new online algorithm that computes the Skyline. Unlike most existing algorithms that compute the Skyline in a batch, this algorithm returns the first results immediately, produces more and more results continuously, and allows the user to give preferences during the running time of the algorithm so that the user can control what kind of results are produced next (e.g., rather cheap or rather near restaurants).
Efficient time series matching by wavelets
 Proc. of 15th Int'l Conf. on Data Engineering
, 1999
"... Time series stored as feature vectors can be indexed by multidimensional index trees like RTrees for fast retrieval. Due to the dimensionality curse problem, transformations are applied to time series to reduce the number of dimensions of the feature vectors. Different transformations like Discrete ..."
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Cited by 280 (1 self)
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Time series stored as feature vectors can be indexed by multidimensional index trees like RTrees for fast retrieval. Due to the dimensionality curse problem, transformations are applied to time series to reduce the number of dimensions of the feature vectors. Different transformations like Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), KarhunenLoeve (KL) transform or Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) can be applied. While the use of DFT and KL transform or SVD have been studied in the literature, to our knowledge, there is no indepth study on the application of DWT. In this paper, we propose to use Haar Wavelet Transform for time series indexing. The major contributions are: (1) we show that Euclidean distance is preserved in the Haar transformed domain and no false dismissal will occur, (2) we show that Haar transform can outperform DFT through experiments, (3) a new similarity model is suggested to accommodate vertical shift of time series, and (4) a twophase method is proposed for efficientnearest neighbor query in time series databases. 1.
Generalized Search Trees for Database Systems
 IN PROC. 21 ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON VLDB
, 1995
"... This paper introduces the Generalized Search Tree (GiST), an index structure supporting an extensible set of queries and data types. The GiST allows new data types to be indexed in a manner supporting queries natural to the types; this is in contrast to previous work on tree extensibility which only ..."
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Cited by 235 (18 self)
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This paper introduces the Generalized Search Tree (GiST), an index structure supporting an extensible set of queries and data types. The GiST allows new data types to be indexed in a manner supporting queries natural to the types; this is in contrast to previous work on tree extensibility which only supported the traditional set of equality and range predicates. In a single data structure, the GiST provides all the basic search tree logic required by a database system, thereby unifying disparate structures such as B+trees and Rtrees in a single piece of code, and opening the application of search trees to general extensibility. To illustrate the exibility of the GiST, we provide simple method implementations that allow it to behave like a B+tree, an Rtree, and an RDtree, a new index for data with setvalued attributes. We also present a preliminary performance analysis of RDtrees, which leads to discussion on the nature of tree indices and how they behave for various datasets.
On Indexing Mobile Objects
, 1999
"... We show how to index mobile objects in one and two dimensions using efficient dynamic external memory data structures. The problem is motivated by real life applications in traffic monitoring, intelligent navigation and mobile communications domains. For the 1dimensional case, we give (i) a dynamic ..."
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Cited by 223 (16 self)
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We show how to index mobile objects in one and two dimensions using efficient dynamic external memory data structures. The problem is motivated by real life applications in traffic monitoring, intelligent navigation and mobile communications domains. For the 1dimensional case, we give (i) a dynamic, external memory algorithm with guaranteed worst case performance and linear space and (ii) a practical approximation algorithm also in the dynamic, external memory setting, which has linear space and expected logarithmic query time. We also give an algorithm with guaranteed logarithmic query time for a restricted version of the problem. We present extensions of our techniques to two dimensions. In addition we give a lower bound on the number of I/O's needed to answer the ddimensional problem. Initial experimental results and comparisons to traditional indexing approaches are also included. 1 Introduction Traditional database management systems assume that data stored in the database rem...
Hilbert Rtree: An Improved Rtree Using Fractals
 Proceedings 20th VLDB Conference
, 1994
"... We propose a new Rtree structure that outperforms all the older ones. The heart of the idea is to facilitate the deferred splitting approach in Rtrees. This is done by proposing an ordering on the Rtree nodes. This ordering has to be 'good', in the sense that it should group 'simil ..."
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Cited by 222 (12 self)
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We propose a new Rtree structure that outperforms all the older ones. The heart of the idea is to facilitate the deferred splitting approach in Rtrees. This is done by proposing an ordering on the Rtree nodes. This ordering has to be 'good', in the sense that it should group 'similar ' data rectangles together, to minimize the area and perimeter of the resulting minimum bounding rectangles (MBRs). Following [19] we have chosen the socalled '2Dc ' method, which sorts rectangles according to the Hilbert value of the center of the rectangles. Given the ordering, every node has a wellde ned set of sibling nodes; thus, we can use deferred splitting. By adjusting the split policy, the Hilbert Rtree can achieve as high utilization as desired. To the contrary, the Rtree has no control over the space utilization, typically achieving up to 70%. We designed the manipulation algorithms in detail, and we did a full implementation of the Hilbert Rtree. Our experiments show that the '2to3 ' split policy provides a compromise between the insertion complexity and the search cost, giving up to 28 % savings over the R tree [3] on real data. 1