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23
Analysis, Modeling and Generation of SelfSimilar VBR Video Traffic
, 1994
"... We present a detailed statistical analysis of a 2hour long empirical sample of VBR video. The sample was obtained by applying a simple intraframe video compression code to an action movie. The main findings of our analysis are (1) the tail behavior of the marginal bandwidth distribution can be accu ..."
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Cited by 548 (6 self)
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We present a detailed statistical analysis of a 2hour long empirical sample of VBR video. The sample was obtained by applying a simple intraframe video compression code to an action movie. The main findings of our analysis are (1) the tail behavior of the marginal bandwidth distribution can be accurately described using "heavytailed" distributions (e.g., Pareto); (2) the autocorrelation of the VBR video sequence decays hyperbolically (equivalent to longrange dependence) and can be modeled using selfsimilar processes. We combine our findings in a new (nonMarkovian) source model for VBR video and present an algorithm for generating synthetic traffic. Tracedriven simulations show that statistical multiplexing results in significant bandwidth efficiency even when longrange dependence is present. Simulations of our source model show longrange dependence and heavytailed marginals to be important components which are not accounted for in currently used VBR video traffic models. 1 I...
Experimental Queueing Analysis with LongRange Dependent Packet Traffic
 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
, 1996
"... Recent traffic measurement studies from a wide range of working packet networks have convincingly established the presence of significant statistical features that are characteristic of fractal traffic processes, in the sense that these features span many time scales. Of particular interest in packe ..."
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Cited by 346 (14 self)
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Recent traffic measurement studies from a wide range of working packet networks have convincingly established the presence of significant statistical features that are characteristic of fractal traffic processes, in the sense that these features span many time scales. Of particular interest in packet traffic modeling is a property called longrange dependence, which is marked by the presence of correlations that can extend over many time scales. In this paper, we demonstrate empirically that, beyond its statistical significance in traffic measurements, longrange dependence has considerable impact on queueing performance, and is a dominant characteristic for a number of packet traffic engineering problems. In addition, we give conditions under which the use of compact and simple traffic models that incorporate longrange dependence in a parsimonious manner (e.g., fractional Brownian motion) is justified and can lead to new insights into the traffic management of highspeed networks. 1...
Traffic Models in Broadband Networks
, 1997
"... Traffic models are at the heart of any performance evaluation of telecommunications networks. An accurate estimation of network performance is critical for the success of broadband networks. Such networks need to guarantee an acceptable quality of service (QoS) level to the users. Therefore, traff ..."
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Cited by 104 (0 self)
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Traffic models are at the heart of any performance evaluation of telecommunications networks. An accurate estimation of network performance is critical for the success of broadband networks. Such networks need to guarantee an acceptable quality of service (QoS) level to the users. Therefore, traffic models need to be accurate and able to capture the statistical characteristics of the actual traffic. In this article we survey and examine traffic models that are currently used in the literature. Traditional shortrange and nontraditional longrange dependent traffic models are presented. Number of parameters needed, parameter estimation, analytical tractability, and ability of traffic models to capture marginal distribution and autocorrelation structure of actual traffic are discussed. n Figure 1. Finite state model for voice. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant NCR9396299. This article is based on Georgia Tech technical report G...
On the Convergence of Traffic Measurement and Queueing Analysis: A StatisticalMatching And Queueing (SMAQ) Tool
 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
, 1995
"... The analytical tool developed in this paper provides a general solution technique for integration of traffic measurement and queueing analysis. The frequencydomain approach is used to combine the advanced techniques in two areas: signal processing and queueing analysis. Essentially, signal processi ..."
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Cited by 38 (13 self)
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The analytical tool developed in this paper provides a general solution technique for integration of traffic measurement and queueing analysis. The frequencydomain approach is used to combine the advanced techniques in two areas: signal processing and queueing analysis. Essentially, signal processing techniques are used to obtain the steadystate and secondorder statistics of a traffic stream. We propose a new programming method for construction of a special class of Markov chains to statistically match with each given traffic stream (or superposition of heterogeneous traffic streams). The analytical queueing solutions can therefore be obtained by the Foldingalgorithm based on Markov chain input modeling. Comprehensive numerical examples show the great potential of the SMAQ tool to solve measurementbased traffic management issues.
An Overview Of Tes Processes And Modeling Methodology
 SpringerVerlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1993
"... TES (TransformExpandSample) is a versatile methodology for modeling stationary time series with general marginal distributions and a broad range of dependence structures. From the viewpoint of Monte Carlo simulation, TES constitutes a new and flexible input analysis approach whose principal mer ..."
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Cited by 33 (10 self)
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TES (TransformExpandSample) is a versatile methodology for modeling stationary time series with general marginal distributions and a broad range of dependence structures. From the viewpoint of Monte Carlo simulation, TES constitutes a new and flexible input analysis approach whose principal merit is its potential ability to simultaneously capture firstorder and secondorder statistics of empirical time series. That is, TES is designed to fit an arbitrary empirical marginal distribution (histogram), and to simultaneously approximate the leading empirical autocorrelations. This paper is a tutorial introduction to the theory of TES processes and to the modeling methodology based on it. It employs a didactic approach which relies heavily on visual intuition as a means of conveying key ideas and an aid in building deep understanding of TES. This approach is in line with practical TES modeling which itself is based on visual interaction under software support. The interaction t...
The Transition And Autocorrelation Structure Of TES Processes  Part II: Special Cases
 Stochastic Models
, 1992
"... TES (TransformExpandSample) is a versatile class of stochastic sequences which can capture arbitrary marginals and a wide variety of sample path behavior and autocorrelation functions. In TES, the initial variate is uniform on [0,1) and the next variate is obtained recursively by taking the fracti ..."
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Cited by 28 (5 self)
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TES (TransformExpandSample) is a versatile class of stochastic sequences which can capture arbitrary marginals and a wide variety of sample path behavior and autocorrelation functions. In TES, the initial variate is uniform on [0,1) and the next variate is obtained recursively by taking the fractional part (i.e., modulo1 reduction) of a linear autoregressive scheme. The uniform TES variates can then be further transformed to have arbitrary marginals. A companion paper (Part I) presented the general theory of TES processes. This paper (Part II) contains various examples which demonstrate the efficacy of the TES paradigm by comparing numerical and simulationbased calculations for a variety of TES autocorrelation functions. The results have applications to the modeling of autocorrelated sequences, particularly in a Monte Carlo simulation context. Keywords and Phrases: autocorrelated variates, correlated variates, autocorrelation function, autocovariance function, Markov processes, aut...
The Impact of Autocorrelation on Queuing Systems
 Management Science
, 1993
"... The performance of singleserver queues with independent interarrival intervals and service demands is well understood, and often analytically tractable. In particular, the M/M/1 queue has been thoroughly studied, due to its analytical tractability. Little is known, though, when autocorrelation is i ..."
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Cited by 28 (11 self)
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The performance of singleserver queues with independent interarrival intervals and service demands is well understood, and often analytically tractable. In particular, the M/M/1 queue has been thoroughly studied, due to its analytical tractability. Little is known, though, when autocorrelation is introduced into interarrival times or service demands, resulting in loss of analytical tractability. Even the simple case of an M/M/1 queue with autocorrelations does not appear to be well understood. Such autocorrelations do, in fact, abound in reallife systems, and worse, simplifying independence assumptions can lead to very poor estimates of performance measures. This paper reports the results of a simulation study of the impact of autocorrelation on performance in a FIFO queue. The study used two computer methods for generating autocorrelated random sequences, with different autocorrelation characteristics. The simulation results show that the injection of autocorrelation into interarriv...
Tes Modeling of Video Traffic
 IEICE Transactions on Communications
, 1993
"... Video service is slated to be a major application of emerging highspeed communications networks of the future. In particular, fullmotion video is designed to take advantage of the high bandwidths that will become affordably available with the advent of BISDN. A salient feature of compressed vi ..."
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Cited by 25 (9 self)
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Video service is slated to be a major application of emerging highspeed communications networks of the future. In particular, fullmotion video is designed to take advantage of the high bandwidths that will become affordably available with the advent of BISDN. A salient feature of compressed video sources is that they give rise to autocorrelated traffic streams, which are difficult to model with traditional modeling techniques. In this paper, we describe a new methodology, called TES (TransformExpand Sample), for modeling general autocorrelated time series, and we apply it to traffic modeling of compressed video. The main characteristic of this methodology is that it can model an arbitrary marginal distributionand approximate the autocorrelation structure of an empirical sample such as traffic measurements. Furthermore, the empirical marginal (histogram) and leading autocorrelations are captured simultaneously. Practical TES modeling is computationally intensive and is ef...
TESbased video source modeling for performance evaluation of integrated networks,”
 IEEE Transactions on Communications,
, 1994
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TEStool: A Visual Interactive Environment for Modeling Autocorrelated Time Series
, 1995
"... TEStool is a visual interactive software environment for modeling autocorrelated time series, using a versatile class of stochastic processes called TES (TransformExpand Sample). The novel feature of the TES modeling approach is that it strives to fit a model to empirical records by simultaneou ..."
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Cited by 13 (6 self)
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TEStool is a visual interactive software environment for modeling autocorrelated time series, using a versatile class of stochastic processes called TES (TransformExpand Sample). The novel feature of the TES modeling approach is that it strives to fit a model to empirical records by simultaneously capturing both the empirical distribution and the leading empirical autocorrelations. Thus, TES models can have a high degree of fidelity, since both firstorder and secondorder aspects of the statistical signature of empirical time series are targeted for capture. TEStool has been used extensively to model empirical data from a variety of application domains, including compressed video traffic in highspeed communications networks, financial time series and machine reliability. This paper explains the TES approach to modeling empirical autocorrelated time series adopted in TEStool, as well as TEStool's graphical user interface (GUI). Special emphasis is placed on features that...