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Accessing Nearby Copies of Replicated Objects in a Distributed Environment
"... Consider a set of shared objects in a distributed network, where several copies of each object may exist at any given time. To ensure both fast access to the objects as well as efficient utilization of network resources, it is desirable that each access request be satisfied by a copy "clos ..."
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Cited by 549 (8 self)
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Consider a set of shared objects in a distributed network, where several copies of each object may exist at any given time. To ensure both fast access to the objects as well as efficient utilization of network resources, it is desirable that each access request be satisfied by a copy &quot;close &quot; to the requesting node. Unfortunately, it is not clear how to efficiently achieve this goal in a dynamic, distributed environment in which large numbers of objects are continuously being created, replicated, and destroyed. In this paper
Probabilistic Approximation of Metric Spaces and its Algorithmic Applications
 In 37th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1996
"... The goal of approximating metric spaces by more simple metric spaces has led to the notion of graph spanners [PU89, PS89] and to lowdistortion embeddings in lowdimensional spaces [LLR94], having many algorithmic applications. This paper provides a novel technique for the analysis of randomized ..."
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Cited by 351 (32 self)
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The goal of approximating metric spaces by more simple metric spaces has led to the notion of graph spanners [PU89, PS89] and to lowdistortion embeddings in lowdimensional spaces [LLR94], having many algorithmic applications. This paper provides a novel technique for the analysis of randomized algorithms for optimization problems on metric spaces, by relating the randomized performance ratio for any metric space to the randomized performance ratio for a set of "simple" metric spaces. We define a notion of a set of metric spaces that probabilisticallyapproximates another metric space. We prove that any metric space can be probabilisticallyapproximated by hierarchically wellseparated trees (HST) with a polylogarithmic distortion. These metric spaces are "simple" as being: (1) tree metrics. (2) natural for applying a divideandconquer algorithmic approach. The technique presented is of particular interest in the context of online computation. A large number of online al...
On Approximating Arbitrary Metrics by Tree Metrics
 In Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 1998
"... This paper is concerned with probabilistic approximation of metric spaces. In previous work we introduced the method of ecient approximation of metrics by more simple families of metrics in a probabilistic fashion. In particular we study probabilistic approximations of arbitrary metric spaces by \hi ..."
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Cited by 266 (14 self)
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This paper is concerned with probabilistic approximation of metric spaces. In previous work we introduced the method of ecient approximation of metrics by more simple families of metrics in a probabilistic fashion. In particular we study probabilistic approximations of arbitrary metric spaces by \hierarchically wellseparated tree" metric spaces. This has proved as a useful technique for simplifying the solutions to various problems.
Approximation Algorithms for Data Placement in Arbitrary Networks
, 2001
"... We study approximation algorithms for placing replicated data in arbitrary networks. Consider a network of nodes with individual storage capacities and a metric communication cost function, in which each node periodically issues a request for an object drawn from a collection of uniformlength objec ..."
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Cited by 84 (4 self)
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We study approximation algorithms for placing replicated data in arbitrary networks. Consider a network of nodes with individual storage capacities and a metric communication cost function, in which each node periodically issues a request for an object drawn from a collection of uniformlength objects. We consider the problem of placing copies of the objects among the nodes such that the average access cost is minimized. Our main result is a polynomialtime constantfactor approximation algorithm for this placement problem. Our algorithm is based on a careful rounding of a linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show that the data placement problem is MAXSNPhard. We extend our approximation result to a generalization of the data placement problem that models additional costs such as the cost of realizing the placement. We also show that when object lengths are nonuniform, a constantfactor approximation is achievable if the capacity at each node in the approximate solution is allowed to exceed that in the optimal solution by the length of the largest object.
RaDaR: A Scalable Architecture for a Global Web Hosting Service
, 1999
"... As commercial interest in the Internet grows, more and more companies are o#ering the service of hosting and providing access to information that belongs to thirdparty information providers. In the future, successful hosting services may host millions of objects on thousands of servers deployed a ..."
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Cited by 77 (2 self)
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As commercial interest in the Internet grows, more and more companies are o#ering the service of hosting and providing access to information that belongs to thirdparty information providers. In the future, successful hosting services may host millions of objects on thousands of servers deployed around the globe. To provide reasonable access performance to popular resources, these resources will have to be mirrored on multiple servers. In this paper, we identify some challenges due to the scale that a platform for such global services would face, and propose an architecture capable of handling this scale. The proposed architecture has no bottleneck points. A tracedriven simulation using an access trace from AT&T's hosting service shows very promising results for our approach. Keywords: Hosting service, scalable architecture, dynamic replication, migration. 1 Introduction As commercial interest in the Internet grows, more and more companies are o#ering hosting services i.e. ...
Distributed caching algorithm for content distribution networks
 Proc. INFOCOM
, 2010
"... Abstract—The delivery of video content is expected to gain huge momentum, fueled by the popularity of usergenerated clips, growth of VoD libraries, and widespread deployment of IPTV services with features such as CatchUp/PauseLive TV and NPVR capabilities. The ‘timeshifted ’ nature of these perso ..."
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Cited by 76 (1 self)
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Abstract—The delivery of video content is expected to gain huge momentum, fueled by the popularity of usergenerated clips, growth of VoD libraries, and widespread deployment of IPTV services with features such as CatchUp/PauseLive TV and NPVR capabilities. The ‘timeshifted ’ nature of these personalized applications defies the broadcast paradigm underlying conventional TV networks, and increases the overall bandwidth demands by orders of magnitude. Caching strategies provide an effective mechanism for mitigating these massive bandwidth requirements by replicating the most popular content closer to the network edge, rather than storing it in a central site. The reduction in the traffic load lessens the required transport capacity and capital expense, and alleviates performance bottlenecks. In the present paper, we develop lightweight cooperative cache management algorithms aimed at maximizing the traffic volume served from cache and minimizing the bandwidth cost. As a canonical scenario, we focus on a cluster of distributed caches, either connected directly or via a parent node, and formulate the content placement problem as a linear program in order to benchmark the globally optimal performance. Under certain symmetry assumptions, the optimal solution of the linear program is shown to have a rather simple structure. Besides interesting in its own right, the optimal structure offers valuable guidance for the design of lowcomplexity cache management and replacement algorithms. We establish that the performance of the proposed algorithms is guaranteed to be within a constant factor from the globally optimal performance, with far more benign worstcase ratios than in prior work, even in asymmetric scenarios. Numerical experiments for typical popularity distributions reveal that the actual performance is far better than the worstcase conditions indicate. I.
A Dynamic Object Replication and Migration Protocol for an Internet Hosting Service
 IN PROC. OF IEEE ICDCS
, 1998
"... This paper proposes a protocol suite for dynamic replication and migration of Internet objects. It consists of an algorithm for deciding on the number and location of object replicas and an algorithm for distributing requests among currently available replicas. Our approach attempts to place replica ..."
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Cited by 74 (7 self)
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This paper proposes a protocol suite for dynamic replication and migration of Internet objects. It consists of an algorithm for deciding on the number and location of object replicas and an algorithm for distributing requests among currently available replicas. Our approach attempts to place replicas in the vicinity of a majority of requests while ensuring at the same time that no servers are overloaded. The request distribution algorithm uses the same simple mechanism to take into account both server proximity and load, without actually knowing the latter. The replica placement algorithm executes autonomously on each node, without the knowledge of other object replicas in the system. The proposed algorithms rely on the information available in databases maintained by Internet routers. A simulation study using synthetic workloads and the network backbone of UUNET, one of the largest Internet service providers, shows that the proposed protocol is effective in eliminating hot spots and ...
Online Algorithms for Market Clearing
, 2002
"... In this paper we study the problem of online market clearing where there is one commodity in the market being bought and sold by multiple buyers and sellers whose bids arrive and expire at different times. The auctioneer is faced with an online clearing problem of deciding which buy and sell bids to ..."
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Cited by 46 (5 self)
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In this paper we study the problem of online market clearing where there is one commodity in the market being bought and sold by multiple buyers and sellers whose bids arrive and expire at different times. The auctioneer is faced with an online clearing problem of deciding which buy and sell bids to match without knowing what bids will arrive in the future. For maximizing profit, we present a (randomized) online algorithm with a competitive ratio of ln(p max min )+1, when bids are in a range [p min ,p max ], which we show is the best possible. A simpler algorithm has a ratio twice this, and can be used even if expiration times are not known. For maximizing the number of trades, we present a simple greedy algorithm that achieves a factor of 2 competitive ratio if no moneylosing trades are allowed. Interestingly, we show that if the online algorithm is allowed to subsidize matches  match moneylosing pairs if it has already collected enough money from previous pairs to pay for them  then it can be 1competitive with respect to the optimal offline algorithm that is not allowed subsidy. That is, the ability to subsidize is at least as valuable as knowing the future. We also consider the objectives of maximizing buy or sell volume, and present algorithms that achieve a competitive ratio of 2(ln(p max /p min ) + 1), or ln(p max /p min ) + 1 if the online algorithm is allowed subsidization. We show the latter is the best possible competitive ratio for this setting. For social welfare maximization we also obtain an optimal competitive ratio, which is below ln(p max /p min ). We present all of these results as corollaries of theorems on online matching in an incomplete interval graph.
A Framework for Evaluating Replica Placement Algorithms
, 2002
"... This paper introduces a framework for evaluating replica placement algorithms (RPA) for content delivery networks (CDN) as well as RPAs from other fields that might be applicable to current or future CDNs. First, the framework classifies and qualitatively compares RPAs using a generic set of primiti ..."
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Cited by 43 (1 self)
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This paper introduces a framework for evaluating replica placement algorithms (RPA) for content delivery networks (CDN) as well as RPAs from other fields that might be applicable to current or future CDNs. First, the framework classifies and qualitatively compares RPAs using a generic set of primitives that capture problem definitions and heuristics. Second, it provides estimates for the decision times of RPAs using an analytic model. To achieve accuracy, the model takes into account disk accesses and message sizes, in addition to computational complexity and message numbers that have been considered traditionally. Third, it uses the "goodness" of produced placements to compare RPAs even when they have different problem definitions. Based on these evaluations, we identify open issues and potential areas for future research.