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10,497
RADAR: an inbuilding RFbased user location and tracking system
, 2000
"... The proliferation of mobile computing devices and localarea wireless networks has fostered a growing interest in locationaware systems and services. In this paper we present RADAR, a radiofrequency (RF) based system for locating and tracking users inside buildings. RADAR operates by recording and ..."
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Cited by 2002 (14 self)
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The proliferation of mobile computing devices and localarea wireless networks has fostered a growing interest in locationaware systems and services. In this paper we present RADAR, a radiofrequency (RF) based system for locating and tracking users inside buildings. RADAR operates by recording and processing signal strength information at multiple base stations positioned to provide overlapping coverage in the area of interest. It employs techniques that combine empirical measurements with signal propagation modeling to enable locationaware services and applications. We present concrete experimental results that demonstrate the feasibility of using RADAR to estimate user location with a high degree of accuracy. 1
Fast Planning Through Planning Graph Analysis
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1995
"... We introduce a new approach to planning in STRIPSlike domains based on constructing and analyzing a compact structure we call a Planning Graph. We describe a new planner, Graphplan, that uses this paradigm. Graphplan always returns a shortest possible partialorder plan, or states that no valid pla ..."
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Cited by 1165 (3 self)
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We introduce a new approach to planning in STRIPSlike domains based on constructing and analyzing a compact structure we call a Planning Graph. We describe a new planner, Graphplan, that uses this paradigm. Graphplan always returns a shortest possible partialorder plan, or states that no valid plan exists. We provide empirical evidence in favor of this approach, showing that Graphplan outperforms the totalorder planner, Prodigy, and the partialorder planner, UCPOP, on a variety of interesting natural and artificial planning problems. We also give empirical evidence that the plans produced by Graphplan are quite sensible. Since searches made by this approach are fundamentally different from the searches of other common planning methods, they provide a new perspective on the planning problem.
An Optimal Algorithm for Approximate Nearest Neighbor Searching in Fixed Dimensions
 ACMSIAM SYMPOSIUM ON DISCRETE ALGORITHMS
, 1994
"... Consider a set S of n data points in real ddimensional space, R d , where distances are measured using any Minkowski metric. In nearest neighbor searching we preprocess S into a data structure, so that given any query point q 2 R d , the closest point of S to q can be reported quickly. Given any po ..."
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Cited by 983 (32 self)
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Consider a set S of n data points in real ddimensional space, R d , where distances are measured using any Minkowski metric. In nearest neighbor searching we preprocess S into a data structure, so that given any query point q 2 R d , the closest point of S to q can be reported quickly. Given any positive real ffl, a data point p is a (1 + ffl)approximate nearest neighbor of q if its distance from q is within a factor of (1 + ffl) of the distance to the true nearest neighbor. We show that it is possible to preprocess a set of n points in R d in O(dn log n) time and O(dn) space, so that given a query point q 2 R d , and ffl ? 0, a (1 + ffl)approximate nearest neighbor of q can be computed in O(c d;ffl log n) time, where c d;ffl d d1 + 6d=ffle d is a factor depending only on dimension and ffl. In general, we show that given an integer k 1, (1 + ffl)approximations to the k nearest neighbors of q can be computed in additional O(kd log n) time.
Efficient GraphBased Image Segmentation
"... This paper addresses the problem of segmenting an image into regions. We define a predicate for measuring the evidence for a boundary between two regions using a graphbased representation of the image. We then develop an efficient segmentation algorithm based on this predicate, and show that althou ..."
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Cited by 931 (1 self)
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This paper addresses the problem of segmenting an image into regions. We define a predicate for measuring the evidence for a boundary between two regions using a graphbased representation of the image. We then develop an efficient segmentation algorithm based on this predicate, and show that although this algorithm makes greedy decisions it produces segmentations that satisfy global properties. We apply the algorithm to image segmentation using two different kinds of local neighborhoods in constructing the graph, and illustrate the results with both real and synthetic images. The algorithm runs in time nearly linear in the number of graph edges and is also fast in practice. An important characteristic of the method is its ability to preserve detail in lowvariability image regions while ignoring detail in highvariability regions.
Pictorial Structures for Object Recognition
 IJCV
, 2003
"... In this paper we present a statistical framework for modeling the appearance of objects. Our work is motivated by the pictorial structure models introduced by Fischler and Elschlager. The basic idea is to model an object by a collection of parts arranged in a deformable configuration. The appearance ..."
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Cited by 818 (16 self)
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In this paper we present a statistical framework for modeling the appearance of objects. Our work is motivated by the pictorial structure models introduced by Fischler and Elschlager. The basic idea is to model an object by a collection of parts arranged in a deformable configuration. The appearance of each part is modeled separately, and the deformable configuration is represented by springlike connections between pairs of parts. These models allow for qualitative descriptions of visual appearance, and are suitable for generic recognition problems. We use these models to address the problem of detecting an object in an image as well as the problem of learning an object model from training examples, and present efficient algorithms for both these problems. We demonstrate the techniques by learning models that represent faces and human bodies and using the resulting models to locate the corresponding objects in novel images.
Bayesian Network Classifiers
, 1997
"... Recent work in supervised learning has shown that a surprisingly simple Bayesian classifier with strong assumptions of independence among features, called naive Bayes, is competitive with stateoftheart classifiers such as C4.5. This fact raises the question of whether a classifier with less restr ..."
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Cited by 788 (23 self)
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Recent work in supervised learning has shown that a surprisingly simple Bayesian classifier with strong assumptions of independence among features, called naive Bayes, is competitive with stateoftheart classifiers such as C4.5. This fact raises the question of whether a classifier with less restrictive assumptions can perform even better. In this paper we evaluate approaches for inducing classifiers from data, based on the theory of learning Bayesian networks. These networks are factored representations of probability distributions that generalize the naive Bayesian classifier and explicitly represent statements about independence. Among these approaches we single out a method we call Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (TAN), which outperforms naive Bayes, yet at the same time maintains the computational simplicity (no search involved) and robustness that characterize naive Bayes. We experimentally tested these approaches, using problems from the University of California at Irvine repository, and compared them to C4.5, naive Bayes, and wrapper methods for feature selection.
Dynamic Bayesian Networks: Representation, Inference and Learning
, 2002
"... Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have bee ..."
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Cited by 758 (3 self)
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Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have been used for problems ranging from tracking planes and missiles to predicting the economy. However, HMMs
and KFMs are limited in their “expressive power”. Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) generalize HMMs by allowing the state space to be represented in factored form, instead of as a single discrete random variable. DBNs generalize KFMs by allowing arbitrary probability distributions, not just (unimodal) linearGaussian. In this thesis, I will discuss how to represent many different kinds of models as DBNs, how to perform exact and approximate inference in DBNs, and how to learn DBN models from sequential data.
In particular, the main novel technical contributions of this thesis are as follows: a way of representing
Hierarchical HMMs as DBNs, which enables inference to be done in O(T) time instead of O(T 3), where T is the length of the sequence; an exact smoothing algorithm that takes O(log T) space instead of O(T); a simple way of using the junction tree algorithm for online inference in DBNs; new complexity bounds on exact online inference in DBNs; a new deterministic approximate inference algorithm called factored frontier; an analysis of the relationship between the BK algorithm and loopy belief propagation; a way of
applying RaoBlackwellised particle filtering to DBNs in general, and the SLAM (simultaneous localization
and mapping) problem in particular; a way of extending the structural EM algorithm to DBNs; and a variety of different applications of DBNs. However, perhaps the main value of the thesis is its catholic presentation of the field of sequential data modelling.
The design and implementation of FFTW3
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE
, 2005
"... FFTW is an implementation of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) that adapts to the hardware in order to maximize performance. This paper shows that such an approach can yield an implementation that is competitive with handoptimized libraries, and describes the software structure that makes our cu ..."
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Cited by 717 (3 self)
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FFTW is an implementation of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) that adapts to the hardware in order to maximize performance. This paper shows that such an approach can yield an implementation that is competitive with handoptimized libraries, and describes the software structure that makes our current FFTW3 version flexible and adaptive. We further discuss a new algorithm for realdata DFTs of prime size, a new way of implementing DFTs by means of machinespecific singleinstruction, multipledata (SIMD) instructions, and how a specialpurpose compiler can derive optimized implementations of the discrete cosine and sine transforms automatically from a DFT algorithm.
gSpan: GraphBased Substructure Pattern Mining
, 2002
"... We investigate new approaches for frequent graphbased pattern mining in graph datasets and propose a novel algorithm called gSpan (graphbased Substructure pattern mining) , which discovers frequent substructures without candidate generation. gSpan builds a new lexicographic order among graphs, and ..."
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Cited by 639 (34 self)
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We investigate new approaches for frequent graphbased pattern mining in graph datasets and propose a novel algorithm called gSpan (graphbased Substructure pattern mining) , which discovers frequent substructures without candidate generation. gSpan builds a new lexicographic order among graphs, and maps each graph to a unique minimum DFS code as its canonical label. Based on this lexicographic order, gSpan adopts the depthfirst search strategy to mine frequent connected subgraphs efficiently. Our performance study shows that gSpan substantially outperforms previous algorithms, sometimes by an order of magnitude.