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65
Fast Point Feature Histograms (FPFH) for 3D Registration
 in In Proceedings of the International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA
, 2009
"... Abstract — In our recent work [1], [2], we proposed Point Feature Histograms (PFH) as robust multidimensional features which describe the local geometry around a point p for 3D point cloud datasets. In this paper, we modify their mathematical expressions and perform a rigorous analysis on their rob ..."
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Cited by 143 (7 self)
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Abstract — In our recent work [1], [2], we proposed Point Feature Histograms (PFH) as robust multidimensional features which describe the local geometry around a point p for 3D point cloud datasets. In this paper, we modify their mathematical expressions and perform a rigorous analysis on their robustness and complexity for the problem of 3D registration for overlapping point cloud views. More concretely, we present several optimizations that reduce their computation times drastically by either caching previously computed values or by revising their theoretical formulations. The latter results in a new type of local features, called Fast Point Feature Histograms (FPFH), which retain most of the discriminative power of the PFH. Moreover, we propose an algorithm for the online computation of FPFH features for realtime applications. To validate our results we demonstrate their efficiency for 3D registration and propose a new sample consensus based method for bringing two datasets into the convergence basin of a local nonlinear optimizer: SACIA (SAmple Consensus Initial Alignment). I.
Matching 2.5D face scans to 3D models
 PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
, 2006
"... The performance of face recognition systems that use twodimensional images depends on factors such as lighting and subject’s pose. We are developing a face recognition system that utilizes threedimensional shape information to make the system more robust to arbitrary pose and lighting. For each s ..."
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Cited by 95 (5 self)
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The performance of face recognition systems that use twodimensional images depends on factors such as lighting and subject’s pose. We are developing a face recognition system that utilizes threedimensional shape information to make the system more robust to arbitrary pose and lighting. For each subject, a 3D face model is constructed by integrating several 2.5D face scans which are captured from different views. 2.5D is a simplified 3D (x, y, z) surface representation that contains at most one depth value (z direction) for every point in the (x, y) plane. Two different modalities provided by the facial scan, namely, shape and texture, are utilized and integrated for face matching. The recognition engine consists of two components, surface matching and appearancebased matching. The surface matching component is based on a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The candidate list from the gallery used for appearance matching is dynamically generated based on the output of the surface matching component, which reduces the complexity of the appearancebased matching stage. Threedimensional models in the gallery are used to synthesize new appearance samples with pose and illumination variations and the synthesized face images are used in discriminant subspace analysis. The weighted sum rule is applied to combine the scores given by the two matching components. Experimental results are given for matching a database of 200 3D face models with 598 2.5D independent test scans acquired under different pose and some lighting and expression changes. These results show the feasibility of the proposed matching scheme.
Registration of Point Cloud Data from a Geometric Optimization Perspective
, 2004
"... We propose a framework for pairwise registration of shapes represented by point cloud data (PCD). We assume that the points are sampled from a surface and formulate the problem of aligning two PCDs as a minimization of the squared distance between the underlying surfaces. Local quadratic approximant ..."
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Cited by 59 (13 self)
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We propose a framework for pairwise registration of shapes represented by point cloud data (PCD). We assume that the points are sampled from a surface and formulate the problem of aligning two PCDs as a minimization of the squared distance between the underlying surfaces. Local quadratic approximants of the squared distance function are used to develop a linear system whose solution gives the best aligning rigid transform for the given pair of point clouds. The rigid transform is applied and the linear system corresponding to the new orientation is build. This process is iterated until it converges. The pointtopoint and the pointtoplane Iterated Closest Point (ICP) algorithms can be treated as special cases in this framework. Our algorithm can align PCDs even when they are placed far apart, and is experimentally found to be more stable than pointtoplane ICP. We analyze the convergence behavior of our algorithm and of pointtopoint and pointtoplane ICP under our proposed framework, and derive bounds on their rate of convergence. We compare the stability and convergence properties of our algorithm with other registration algorithms on a variety of scanned data.
Shape Segmentation Using Local Slippage Analysis
, 2004
"... We propose a method for segmentation of 3D scanned shapes into simple geometric parts. Given an input point cloud, our method computes a set of components which possess one or more slippable motions: rigid motions which, when applied to a shape, slide the transformed version against the stationary v ..."
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Cited by 56 (4 self)
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We propose a method for segmentation of 3D scanned shapes into simple geometric parts. Given an input point cloud, our method computes a set of components which possess one or more slippable motions: rigid motions which, when applied to a shape, slide the transformed version against the stationary version without forming any gaps. Slippable shapes include rotationally and translationally symmetrical shapes such as planes, spheres, and cylinders, which are often found as components of scanned mechanical parts. We show how to determine the slippable motions of a given shape by computing eigenvalues of a certain symmetric matrix derived from the points and normals of the shape. Our algorithm then discovers slippable components in the input data by computing local slippage signatures at a set of points of the input and iteratively aggregating regions with matching slippable motions. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm for reverse engineering surfaces of mechanical parts.
ThreeDimensional Model Based Face Recognition
, 2004
"... The performance of face recognition systems that use twodimensional (2D) images is dependent on consistent conditions such as lighting, pose and facial expression. We are developing a multiview face recognition system that utilizes threedimensional (3D) information about the face to make the syste ..."
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Cited by 54 (4 self)
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The performance of face recognition systems that use twodimensional (2D) images is dependent on consistent conditions such as lighting, pose and facial expression. We are developing a multiview face recognition system that utilizes threedimensional (3D) information about the face to make the system more robust to these variations. This paper describes a procedure for constructing a database of 3D face models and matching this database to 2.5D face scans which are captured from different views, using coordinate system invariant properties of the facial surface. 2.5D is a simplified 3D (x, y, z) surface representation that contains at most one depth value (z direction) for every point in the (x, y) plane. A robust similarity metric is defined for matching, based on an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) registration process. Results are given for matching a database of 18 3D face models with 113 2.5D face scans.
Scan registration for autonomous mining vehicles using 3DNDT
 Journal of Field Robotics
, 2007
"... Scan registration is an essential subtask when building maps based on range finder data from mobile robots. The problem is to deduce how the robot has moved between consecutive scans, based on the shape of overlapping portions of the scans. This paper presents a new algorithm for registration of 3D ..."
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Cited by 44 (13 self)
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Scan registration is an essential subtask when building maps based on range finder data from mobile robots. The problem is to deduce how the robot has moved between consecutive scans, based on the shape of overlapping portions of the scans. This paper presents a new algorithm for registration of 3D data. The algorithm is a generalization and improvement of the normal distributions transform �NDT � for 2D data developed by Biber and Strasser, which allows for accurate registration using a memoryefficient representation of the scan surface. A detailed quantitative and qualitative comparison of the new algorithm with the 3D version of the popular ICP �iterative closest point � algorithm is presented. Results with actual mine data, some of which were collected with a new prototype 3D laser scanner, show that the presented algorithm is faster and slightly more reliable than the standard ICP algorithm for 3D registration, while using a more memoryefficient scan surface representation. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 1.
Geometry and convergence analysis of algorithms for registration of 3D shapes
, 2006
"... The computation of a rigid body transformation which optimally aligns a set of measurement points with a surface and related registration problems are studied from the viewpoint of geometry and optimization. We provide a convergence analysis for widely used registration algorithms such as ICP, using ..."
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Cited by 43 (6 self)
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The computation of a rigid body transformation which optimally aligns a set of measurement points with a surface and related registration problems are studied from the viewpoint of geometry and optimization. We provide a convergence analysis for widely used registration algorithms such as ICP, using either closest points (Besl and McKay [2]) or tangent planes at closest points (Chen and Medioni [4]), and for a recently developed approach based on quadratic approximants of the squared distance function [24]. ICP based on closest points exhibits local linear convergence only. Its counterpart which minimizes squared distances to the tangent planes at closest points is a GaussNewton iteration; it achieves local quadratic convergence for a zero residual problem and – if enhanced by regularization and step size control – comes close to quadratic convergence in many realistic scenarios. Quadratically convergent algorithms are based on the approach in [24]. The theoretical results are supported by a number of experiments; there, we also compare the algorithms with respect to global convergence behavior, stability and running time.
Integrating Range and Texture Information for 3D Face Recognition
 In IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Application of Computer Vision (WACV
, 2005
"... The performance of face recognition systems that use twodimensional images depends on consistent conditions w.r.t. lighting, pose, and facial appearance. We are developing a face recognition system that utilizes threedimensional shape information to make the system more robust to arbitrary view, l ..."
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Cited by 34 (3 self)
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The performance of face recognition systems that use twodimensional images depends on consistent conditions w.r.t. lighting, pose, and facial appearance. We are developing a face recognition system that utilizes threedimensional shape information to make the system more robust to arbitrary view, lighting, and facial appearance. For each subject, a 3D face model is constructed by integrating several 2.5D face scans from different viewpoints. A 2.5D scan is composed of one range image along with a registered 2D color image. The recognition engine consists of two components, surface matching and appearancebased matching. The surface matching component is based on a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The candidate list used for appearance matching is dynamically generated based on the output of the surface matching component, which reduces the complexity of the appearancebased matching stage. The 3D model in the gallery is used to synthesize new appearance samples with pose and illumination variations that are used for discriminant subspace analysis. The weighted sum rule is applied to combine the two matching components. A hierarchical matching structure is designed to further improve the system performance in both accuracy and efficiency. Experimental results are given for matching a database of 100 3D face models with 598 2.5D independent test scans acquired in different pose and lighting conditions, and with some smiling expression. The results show the feasibility of the proposed matching scheme. 1.
NonRigid RangeScan Alignment Using ThinPlate Splines
 In Proc. 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission
, 2004
"... We present a nonrigid alignment algorithm for aligning highresolution range data in the presence of lowfrequency deformations, such as those caused by scanner calibration error. Traditional iterative closest points (ICP) algorithms, which rely on rigidbody alignment, fail in these cases because t ..."
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Cited by 30 (3 self)
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We present a nonrigid alignment algorithm for aligning highresolution range data in the presence of lowfrequency deformations, such as those caused by scanner calibration error. Traditional iterative closest points (ICP) algorithms, which rely on rigidbody alignment, fail in these cases because the error appears as a nonrigid warp in the data. Our algorithm combines the robustness and efficiency of ICP with the expressiveness of thinplate splines to align highresolution scanned data accurately, such as scans from the Digital Michelangelo Project [14]. This application is distinguished from previous uses of the thinplate spline by the fact that the resolution and size of warping are several orders of magnitude smaller than the extent of the mesh, thus requiring especially precise feature correspondence. 1.
Registration without ICP
 Computer Vision and Image Understanding
, 2002
"... We present a new approach to the geometric alignment of a point cloud to a surface and to related registration problems. The standard algorithm is the familiar ICP algorithm. Here we provide an alternative concept which relies on instantaneous kinematics and on the geometry of the squared distance f ..."
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Cited by 28 (4 self)
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We present a new approach to the geometric alignment of a point cloud to a surface and to related registration problems. The standard algorithm is the familiar ICP algorithm. Here we provide an alternative concept which relies on instantaneous kinematics and on the geometry of the squared distance function of a surface. The proposed algorithm exhibits faster convergence than ICP