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1,172
Nonlinear total variation based noise removal algorithms
, 1992
"... A constrained optimization type of numerical algorithm for removing noise from images is presented. The total variation of the image is minimized subject to constraints involving the statistics of the noise. The constraints are imposed using Lagrange multipliers. The solution is obtained using the g ..."
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Cited by 2270 (52 self)
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A constrained optimization type of numerical algorithm for removing noise from images is presented. The total variation of the image is minimized subject to constraints involving the statistics of the noise. The constraints are imposed using Lagrange multipliers. The solution is obtained using the gradientprojection method. This amounts to solving a time dependent partial differential equation on a manifold determined by the constraints. As t ~ 0o the solution converges to a steady state which is the denoised image. The numerical algorithm is simple and relatively fast. The results appear to be stateoftheart for very noisy images. The method is noninvasive, yielding sharp edges in the image. The technique could be interpreted as a first step of moving each level set of the image normal to itself with velocity equal to the curvature of the level set divided by the magnitude of the gradient of the image, and a second step which projects the image back onto the constraint set.
Geodesic Active Contours
, 1997
"... A novel scheme for the detection of object boundaries is presented. The technique is based on active contours evolving in time according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image. The evolving contours naturally split and merge, allowing the simultaneous detection of several objects and both in ..."
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Cited by 1422 (47 self)
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A novel scheme for the detection of object boundaries is presented. The technique is based on active contours evolving in time according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image. The evolving contours naturally split and merge, allowing the simultaneous detection of several objects and both interior and exterior boundaries. The proposed approach is based on the relation between active contours and the computation of geodesics or minimal distance curves. The minimal distance curve lays in a Riemannian space whose metric is defined by the image content. This geodesic approach for object segmentation allows to connect classical “snakes ” based on energy minimization and geometric active contours based on the theory of curve evolution. Previous models of geometric active contours are improved, allowing stable boundary detection when their gradients suffer from large variations, including gaps. Formal results concerning existence, uniqueness, stability, and correctness of the evolution are presented as well. The scheme was implemented using an efficient algorithm for curve evolution. Experimental results of applying the scheme to real images including objects with holes and medical data imagery demonstrate its power. The results may be extended to 3D object segmentation as well.
USER’S GUIDE TO VISCOSITY SOLUTIONS OF SECOND ORDER PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
, 1992
"... The notion of viscosity solutions of scalar fully nonlinear partial differential equations of second order provides a framework in which startling comparison and uniqueness theorems, existence theorems, and theorems about continuous dependence may now be proved by very efficient and striking argume ..."
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Cited by 1403 (15 self)
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The notion of viscosity solutions of scalar fully nonlinear partial differential equations of second order provides a framework in which startling comparison and uniqueness theorems, existence theorems, and theorems about continuous dependence may now be proved by very efficient and striking arguments. The range of important applications of these results is enormous. This article is a selfcontained exposition of the basic theory of viscosity solutions.
Shape modeling with front propagation: A level set approach
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1995
"... Abstract Shape modeling is an important constituent of computer vision as well as computer graphics research. Shape models aid the tasks of object representation and recognition. This paper presents a new approach to shape modeling which retains some of the attractive features of existing methods ..."
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Cited by 804 (20 self)
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Abstract Shape modeling is an important constituent of computer vision as well as computer graphics research. Shape models aid the tasks of object representation and recognition. This paper presents a new approach to shape modeling which retains some of the attractive features of existing methods and overcomes some of their limitations. Our techniques can be applied to model arbitrarily complex shapes, which include shapes with significant protrusions, and to situations where no a priori assumption about the object’s topology is made. A single instance of our model, when presented with an image having more than one object of interest, has the ability to split freely to represent each object. This method is based on the ideas developed by Osher and Sethian to model propagating solidhiquid interfaces with curvaturedependent speeds. The interface (front) is a closed, nonintersecting, hypersurface flowing along its gradient field with constant speed or a speed that depends on the curvature. It is moved by solving a “HamiltonJacob? ’ type equation written for a function in which the interface is a particular level set. A speed term synthesizpd from the image is used to stop the interface in the vicinity of object boundaries. The resulting equation of motion is solved by employing entropysatisfying upwind finite difference schemes. We present a variety of ways of computing evolving front, including narrow bands, reinitializations, and different stopping criteria. The efficacy of the scheme is demonstrated with numerical experiments on some synthesized images and some low contrast medical images. Index Terms Shape modeling, shape recovery, interface motion, level sets, hyperbolic conservation laws, HamiltonJacobi
A Fast Marching Level Set Method for Monotonically Advancing Fronts
 PROC. NAT. ACAD. SCI
, 1995
"... We present a fast marching level set method for monotonically advancing fronts, which leads to an extremely fast scheme for solving the Eikonal equation. Level set methods are numerical techniques for computing the position of propagating fronts. They rely on an initial value partial differential eq ..."
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Cited by 617 (22 self)
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We present a fast marching level set method for monotonically advancing fronts, which leads to an extremely fast scheme for solving the Eikonal equation. Level set methods are numerical techniques for computing the position of propagating fronts. They rely on an initial value partial differential equation for a propagating level set function, and use techniques borrowed from hyperbolic conservation laws. Topological changes, corner and cusp development, and accurate determination of geometric properties such as curvature and normal direction are naturally obtained in this setting. In this paper, we describe a particular case of such methods for interfaces whose speed depends only on local position. The technique works by coupling work on entropy conditions for interface motion, the theory of viscosity solutions for HamiltonJacobi equations and fast adaptive narrow band level set methods. The technique is applicable to a variety of problems, including shapefromshading problems, lithog...
Image Inpainting
, 2000
"... Inpainting, the technique of modifying an image in an undetectable form, is as ancient as art itself. The goals and applications of inpainting are numerous, from the restoration of damaged paintings and photographs to the removal/replacement of selected objects. In this paper, we introduce a novel a ..."
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Cited by 533 (25 self)
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Inpainting, the technique of modifying an image in an undetectable form, is as ancient as art itself. The goals and applications of inpainting are numerous, from the restoration of damaged paintings and photographs to the removal/replacement of selected objects. In this paper, we introduce a novel algorithm for digital inpainting of still images that attempts to replicate the basic techniques used by professional restorators. After the user selects the regions to be restored, the algorithm automatically fillsin these regions with information surrounding them. The fillin is done in such a way that isophote lines arriving at the regions ’ boundaries are completed inside. In contrast with previous approaches, the technique here introduced does not require the user to specify where the novel information comes from. This is automatically done (and in a fast way), thereby allowing to simultaneously fillin numerous regions containing completely different structures and surrounding backgrounds. In addition, no limitations are imposed on the topology of the region to be inpainted. Applications of this technique include the restoration of old photographs and damaged film; removal of superimposed text like dates, subtitles, or publicity; and the removal of entire objects from the image like microphones or wires in special effects.
Practical animation of liquids
 Graphical Models and Image Processing
, 1996
"... We present a comprehensive methodology for realistically animating liquid phenomena. Our approach unifies existing computer graphics techniques for simulating fluids and extends them by incorporating more complex behavior. It is based on the NavierStokes equations which couple momentum and mass con ..."
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Cited by 442 (26 self)
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We present a comprehensive methodology for realistically animating liquid phenomena. Our approach unifies existing computer graphics techniques for simulating fluids and extends them by incorporating more complex behavior. It is based on the NavierStokes equations which couple momentum and mass conservation to completely describe fluid motion. Our starting point is an environment containing an arbitrary distribution of fluid, and submerged or semisubmerged obstacles. Velocity and pressure are defined everywhere within this environment, and updated using a set of finite difference expressions. The resulting vector and scalar fields are used to drive a height field equation representing the liquid surface. The nature of the coupling between obstacles in the environment and free variables allows for the simulation of a wide range of effects that were not possible with previous computergraphics fluid models. Wave effects such as reflection, refraction and diffraction, as well as rotational effects such as eddies, vorticity, and splashing are a natural consequence of solving the system. In addition, the Lagrange equations of motion are used to place buoyant dynamic objects into a scene, and track the position of spray and foam during the animation process. Typical disadvantages to dynamic simulations such as poor scalability and lack of control are addressed by assuming that stationary obstacles align with grid cells during the finite difference discretization, and by appending terms to the NavierStokes equations to include forcing functions. Free surfaces in our system are represented as either a collection of massless particles in 2D, or a height field which is suitable for many of the water rendering algorithms presented by researchers in recent years.
Motion of level sets by mean curvature
 II, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc
"... We construct a unique weak solution of the nonlinear PDE which asserts each level set evolves in time according to its mean curvature. This weak solution allows us then to define for any compact set Γ o a unique generalized motion by mean curvature, existing for all time. We investigate the various ..."
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Cited by 432 (6 self)
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We construct a unique weak solution of the nonlinear PDE which asserts each level set evolves in time according to its mean curvature. This weak solution allows us then to define for any compact set Γ o a unique generalized motion by mean curvature, existing for all time. We investigate the various geometric properties and pathologies of this evolution. 1.
Contour Detection and Hierarchical Image Segmentation
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2010
"... This paper investigates two fundamental problems in computer vision: contour detection and image segmentation. We present stateoftheart algorithms for both of these tasks. Our contour detector combines multiple local cues into a globalization framework based on spectral clustering. Our segmentati ..."
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Cited by 383 (23 self)
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This paper investigates two fundamental problems in computer vision: contour detection and image segmentation. We present stateoftheart algorithms for both of these tasks. Our contour detector combines multiple local cues into a globalization framework based on spectral clustering. Our segmentation algorithm consists of generic machinery for transforming the output of any contour detector into a hierarchical region tree. In this manner, we reduce the problem of image segmentation to that of contour detection. Extensive experimental evaluation demonstrates that both our contour detection and segmentation methods significantly outperform competing algorithms. The automatically generated hierarchical segmentations can be interactively refined by userspecified annotations. Computation at multiple image resolutions provides a means of coupling our system to recognition applications.
Uniqueness and existence of viscosity solutions of generalized mean curvature flow equations
 Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 65
, 1989
"... This paper treats degenerate parabolic equations of second order (1.1) u t + F{Vu, V 2 w) = 0 ..."
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Cited by 365 (15 self)
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This paper treats degenerate parabolic equations of second order (1.1) u t + F{Vu, V 2 w) = 0