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Mutual information and minimum meansquare error in Gaussian channels
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 2005
"... This paper deals with arbitrarily distributed finitepower input signals observed through an additive Gaussian noise channel. It shows a new formula that connects the inputoutput mutual information and the minimum meansquare error (MMSE) achievable by optimal estimation of the input given the out ..."
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Cited by 285 (32 self)
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This paper deals with arbitrarily distributed finitepower input signals observed through an additive Gaussian noise channel. It shows a new formula that connects the inputoutput mutual information and the minimum meansquare error (MMSE) achievable by optimal estimation of the input given the output. That is, the derivative of the mutual information (nats) with respect to the signaltonoise ratio (SNR) is equal to half the MMSE, regardless of the input statistics. This relationship holds for both scalar and vector signals, as well as for discretetime and continuoustime noncausal MMSE estimation. This fundamental informationtheoretic result has an unexpected consequence in continuoustime nonlinear estimation: For any input signal with finite power, the causal filtering MMSE achieved at SNR is equal to the average value of the noncausal smoothing MMSE achieved with a channel whose signaltonoise ratio is chosen uniformly distributed between 0 and SNR.
"Turbo equalization": principles and new results
, 2000
"... Since the invention of \turbo codes" by Berrou et al. in 1993, the \turbo principle" has been adapted to several communication problems such as \turbo equalization", \turbo trellis coded modulation", and iterative multi user detection. In this paper we study the \turbo equalizati ..."
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Cited by 271 (24 self)
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Since the invention of \turbo codes" by Berrou et al. in 1993, the \turbo principle" has been adapted to several communication problems such as \turbo equalization", \turbo trellis coded modulation", and iterative multi user detection. In this paper we study the \turbo equalization" approach, which can be applied to coded data transmission over channels with intersymbol interference (ISI). In the original system invented by Douillard et al., the data is protected by a convolutional code and a receiver consisting of two trellisbased detectors are used, one for the channel (the equalizer) and one for the code (the decoder). It has been shown that iterating equalization and decoding tasks can yield tremendous improvements in bit error rate (BER). We introduce new approaches to combining equalization based on linear ltering with the decoding. The result is a receiver that is capable of improving BER performance through iterations of equalization and decoding in a manner similar to turbo ...
Differential spacetime modulation
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2000
"... Abstract—Space–time coding and modulation exploit the presence of multiple transmit antennas to improve performance on multipath radio channels. Thus far, most work on space–time coding has assumed that perfect channel estimates are available at the receiver. In certain situations, however, it may b ..."
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Cited by 262 (1 self)
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Abstract—Space–time coding and modulation exploit the presence of multiple transmit antennas to improve performance on multipath radio channels. Thus far, most work on space–time coding has assumed that perfect channel estimates are available at the receiver. In certain situations, however, it may be difficult or costly to estimate the channel accurately, in which case it is natural to consider the design of modulation techniques that do not require channel estimates at the transmitter or receiver. We propose a general approach to differential modulation for multiple transmit antennas based on group codes. This approach can be applied to any number of transmit and receive antennas, and any signal constellation. We also derive lowcomplexity differential receivers, error bounds, and modulator design criteria, which we use to construct optimal differential modulation schemes for two transmit antennas. These schemes can be demodulated with or without channel estimates. This permits the receiver to exploit channel estimates when they are available. Performance degrades by approximately 3 dB when estimates are not available. Index Terms—Differential modulation, group codes, multipath channels, noncoherent communication, space–time coding, transmit diversity. I.
A Survey of Shape Analysis Techniques
 Pattern Recognition
, 1998
"... This paper provides a review of shape analysis methods. Shape analysis methods play an important role in systems for object recognition, matching, registration, and analysis. Researchin shape analysis has been motivated, in part, by studies of human visual form perception systems. ..."
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Cited by 261 (2 self)
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This paper provides a review of shape analysis methods. Shape analysis methods play an important role in systems for object recognition, matching, registration, and analysis. Researchin shape analysis has been motivated, in part, by studies of human visual form perception systems.
The feasibility of launching and detecting jamming attacks in wireless networks
 In ACM MOBIHOC
, 2005
"... Wireless networks are built upon a shared medium that makes it easy for adversaries to launch jammingstyle attacks. These attacks can be easily accomplished by an adversary emitting radio frequency signals that do not follow an underlying MAC protocol. Jamming attacks can severely interfere with th ..."
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Cited by 252 (15 self)
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Wireless networks are built upon a shared medium that makes it easy for adversaries to launch jammingstyle attacks. These attacks can be easily accomplished by an adversary emitting radio frequency signals that do not follow an underlying MAC protocol. Jamming attacks can severely interfere with the normal operation of wireless networks and, consequently, mechanisms are needed that can cope with jamming attacks. In this paper, we examine radio interference attacks from both sides of the issue: first, we study the problem of conducting radio interference attacks on wireless networks, and second we examine the critical issue of diagnosing the presence of jamming attacks. Specifically, we propose four different jamming attack models that can be used by an adversary to disable the operation of a wireless network, and evaluate their effectiveness in terms of how
Channel coding rate in the finite blocklength regime
 IEEE TRANS. INF. THEORY
, 2010
"... This paper investigates the maximal channel coding rate achievable at a given blocklength and error probability. For general classes of channels new achievability and converse bounds are given, which are tighter than existing bounds for wide ranges of parameters of interest, and lead to tight appro ..."
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Cited by 230 (29 self)
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This paper investigates the maximal channel coding rate achievable at a given blocklength and error probability. For general classes of channels new achievability and converse bounds are given, which are tighter than existing bounds for wide ranges of parameters of interest, and lead to tight approximations of the maximal achievable rate for blocklengths as short as 100. It is also shown analytically that the maximal rate achievable with error probability is closely approximated by where is the capacity, is a characteristic of the channel referred to as channel dispersion, and is the complementary Gaussian cumulative distribution function.
Image Change Detection Algorithms: A Systematic Survey
 IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
, 2005
"... Detecting regions of change in multiple images of the same scene taken at different times is of widespread interest due to a large number of applications in diverse disciplines, including remote sensing, surveillance, medical diagnosis and treatment, civil infrastructure, and underwater sensing. T ..."
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Cited by 228 (3 self)
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Detecting regions of change in multiple images of the same scene taken at different times is of widespread interest due to a large number of applications in diverse disciplines, including remote sensing, surveillance, medical diagnosis and treatment, civil infrastructure, and underwater sensing. This paper presents a systematic survey of the common processing steps and core decision rules in modern change detection algorithms, including significance and hypothesis testing, predictive models, the shading model, and background modeling. We also discuss important preprocessing methods, approaches to enforcing the consistency of the change mask, and principles for evaluating and comparing the performance of change detection algorithms. It is hoped that our classification of algorithms into a relatively small number of categories will provide useful guidance to the algorithm designer.
Hyperspectral image classification and dimensionality reduction: an orthogonal subspace projection approach
 IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
, 1994
"... AbstructMost applications of hyperspectral imagery require processing techniques which achieve two fundamental goals: 1) detect and classify the constituent materials for each pixel in the scene; 2) reduce the data volumeldimensionality, without loss of critical information, so that it can be proc ..."
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Cited by 179 (15 self)
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AbstructMost applications of hyperspectral imagery require processing techniques which achieve two fundamental goals: 1) detect and classify the constituent materials for each pixel in the scene; 2) reduce the data volumeldimensionality, without loss of critical information, so that it can be processed efficiently and assimilated by a human analyst. In this paper, we describe a technique which simultaneously reduces the data dimensionality, suppresses undesired or interfering spectral signatures, and detects the presence of a spectral signature of interest. The basic concept is to project each pixel vector onto a subspace which is orthogonal to the undesired signatures. This operation is an optimal interference suppression process in the least squares sense. Once the interfering signatures have been nulled, projecting the residual onto the signature of interest maximizes the signaltonoise ratio and results in a single component image that represents a classification for the signature of interest. The orthogonal subspace projection (OSP) operator can be extended to k signatures of interest, thus reducing the dimensionality of k and classifying the hyperspectral image simultaneously. The approach is applicable to both spectrally pure as well as mixed pixels. I.
Quantized consensus
, 2007
"... We study the distributed averaging problem on arbitrary connected graphs, with the additional constraint that the value at each node is an integer. This discretized distributed averaging problem models several problems of interest, such as averaging in a network with finite capacity channels and loa ..."
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Cited by 150 (0 self)
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We study the distributed averaging problem on arbitrary connected graphs, with the additional constraint that the value at each node is an integer. This discretized distributed averaging problem models several problems of interest, such as averaging in a network with finite capacity channels and load balancing in a processor network. We describe simple randomized distributed algorithms which achieve consensus to the extent that the discrete nature of the problem permits. We give bounds on the convergence time of these algorithms for fully connected networks and linear networks.