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275
Guidelines for authors
 Educational and Psychological Measurement
, 1994
"... ∙The author has no financial conflicts of interest. After glioma pathogenesisrelated protein 1 (GLIPR1/Glipr1) was identified, the expression of GLIPR1 was shown to be downregulated in human prostate cancer, owing in part to methylation in the regulatory region of this gene in prostate cancer cell ..."
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∙The author has no financial conflicts of interest. After glioma pathogenesisrelated protein 1 (GLIPR1/Glipr1) was identified, the expression of GLIPR1 was shown to be downregulated in human prostate cancer, owing in part to methylation in the regulatory region of this gene in prostate cancer cells. Additional studies showed that GLIPR1/Glipr1 expression is induced by DNAdamaging agents independent of p53. Functional analysis of GLIPR1 using in vitro and in vivo genetransfer approaches revealed both growth suppression and proapoptotic activities for mouse Glipr1 and human GLIPR1 in multiple cancer cell lines. The proapoptotic activities were dependent on production of reactive oxygen species and sustained cJunNH2 kinase signaling. It was interesting that adenoviral vectormediated Glipr1 (AdGlipr1) transduction into prostate cancer tissues using an immunocompetent orthotopic mouse model revealed additional biologic activities consistent with tumorsuppressor functions. Significantly reduced tumorassociated angiogenesis and direct suppression of endothelialcell sprouting
An investigation of teachers' beliefs of students' algebra development
 Cognition and Instruction
, 2000
"... Elementary, middle, and high school mathematics teachers (N = 105) ranked a set of mathematics problems based on expectations of their relative problemsolving difficulty. Teachers also rated their levels of agreement to a variety of reformbased statements on teaching and learning mathematics. Anal ..."
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Cited by 45 (14 self)
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Elementary, middle, and high school mathematics teachers (N = 105) ranked a set of mathematics problems based on expectations of their relative problemsolving difficulty. Teachers also rated their levels of agreement to a variety of reformbased statements on teaching and learning mathematics. Analyses suggest that teachers hold a symbolprecedence view of student mathematical development, wherein arithmetic reasoning strictly precedes algebraic reasoning, and symbolic problemsolving develops prior to verbal reasoning. High school teachers were most likely to hold the symbolprecedence view and made the poorest predictions of students ’ performances, whereas middle school teachers ’ predictions were most accurate. The discord between teachers ’ reformbased beliefs and their instructional decisions appears to be influenced by textbook organization, which institutionalizes the symbolprecedence view. Because of their extensive content training, high school teachers may be particularly susceptible to an expert blindspot, whereby they overestimate the accessibility of symbolbased representations and procedures for students ’ learning introductory algebra. The study of people engaged in cognitively demanding tasks must consider the relation between people’s judgments and actions and the beliefs they hold. Several aspects of people’s decision making are well established. People do not strictly follow the laws of logic and probability when weighing information or following im
Mathematics learning disabilities: A view from development psychology
 Journal of Learning Disabilities
, 1997
"... U.S. education suffers from shortcomings that put even children possessing adequate intellectual abilities at risk for low mathematics achievement. Consequently, identifying and understanding children whose academic failure is influenced by a genuine learning disability requires a complex "deve ..."
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U.S. education suffers from shortcomings that put even children possessing adequate intellectual abilities at risk for low mathematics achievement. Consequently, identifying and understanding children whose academic failure is influenced by a genuine learning disability requires a complex "developmental " research agenda. This perspective suggests the use of sensitive research methods— clinical interviews, ethnographies—to examine the development of children's construction of knowledge in the context of schooling. Researchers should consider such factors as the adequacy of classroom instruction, the availability in children of informal knowledge, the role of motivation, the effects of specific interventions, the role and operation of different cognitive processes in constructing mathematical understanding, children's difficulties across different areas of mathematics, and the development of children's thinking throughout the school years. Most research on learning disabilities has focused on difficulties in the area of reading, with the result being that little attention has been given to mathematics learning disabilities. Perhaps (in the United States at least) this results in part from our culture's general reluctance to deal with things mathematical. Just as elementaryschool teachers tend to avoid mathematics at all costs, so perhaps do researchers shy away from examining mathematics learning disabilities. Whatever the reason for the lack of popularity of this kind of research, the topic of learning disabilities in mathematics requires serious attention. Many children receive diagnoses of mathematics learning disability, or the related dyscalculia and acalculia. Yet, little is understood concerning these "conditions " and how they develop. My goal in this article is to show how a developmental perspective can help to provide insights into the nature, development, and treatment of mathematics learning disabilities. Over the past 20 years, a good deal of research has been conducted on the development of mathematical thinking, mostly in normally achieving, middle class children in the United States, but also in children from different cultures, including street children in Brazil
Examining the relationship between beliefs and goals in teacher practice
 Journal of mathematical behavior
, 1999
"... This article presents a detailed analysis of how teacher beliefs interact with goals and influence the momenttomoment actions of teaching. The beliefs, goals and instructional practice of two secondary mathematics teachers were examined as each conducted an algebra lesson. We discuss how specific ..."
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Cited by 30 (2 self)
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This article presents a detailed analysis of how teacher beliefs interact with goals and influence the momenttomoment actions of teaching. The beliefs, goals and instructional practice of two secondary mathematics teachers were examined as each conducted an algebra lesson. We discuss how specific beliefs organized to influence the selection and prioritization of goals that then influenced the actions of each teacher. Finegrained analysis of classroom video and teacher interviews revealed that particular collections of beliefs become apparent when there is a shift in the teacher’s goals. Exploring the relationship between teacher beliefs and goals at this level of detail allows for the investigation of the mechanisms of the teaching process. Implications of this research for teacher education and professional development are also discussed.
Too angry to leave: Supporting new teachers’ commitment to transform urban schools
 Journal of Teacher Education
, 2003
"... While the challenge to retain highly competent teachers affects all schools, the crisis is critical in urban districts, which historically suffer from a severe shortage of qualified teachers. This paper reports research on one effort to curb urban teacher attrition through a nontraditional approac ..."
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Cited by 22 (0 self)
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While the challenge to retain highly competent teachers affects all schools, the crisis is critical in urban districts, which historically suffer from a severe shortage of qualified teachers. This paper reports research on one effort to curb urban teacher attrition through a nontraditional approach to urban teacher education, induction, and ongoing professional development. It combines quantitative data about the fiveyear retention rates of teachers prepared specifically as “social justice ” urban educators with qualitative data about the type of preparation and ongoing support the teachers experienced. Our analyses of these data allow us to propose elements of preparation and support that may be efficacious in remedying “the revolving door ” of urban schools. This case study extends the broad literature on teacher retention while establishing groundwork for further investigations of urban teachers ’ learning and career paths. In conclusion, it helps reframe the professionalization of teaching debate to fit urban school realities.
The Symbol Precedence View of Mathematical Development: A Corpus Analysis of the Rhetorical Structure of Textbooks
, 2000
"... This study examined a corpus of 10 widely used prealgebra and algebra textbooks, with the goal of investigating whether they exhibited a symbol precedence view of mathematical development as is found among high school teachers. The textbook analysis focused on the sequence in which problemsolvi ..."
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Cited by 22 (3 self)
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This study examined a corpus of 10 widely used prealgebra and algebra textbooks, with the goal of investigating whether they exhibited a symbol precedence view of mathematical development as is found among high school teachers. The textbook analysis focused on the sequence in which problemsolving activities were presented to students. As predicted, textbooks showed the symbol precedence view, presenting symbolic problems prior to verbal problems.
Elementary teachers' mathematics subject knowledge: The Knowledge Quartet and the case of Naomi
 JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICS TEACHER EDUCATION
, 2005
"... This paper draws on videotapes of mathematics lessons prepared and conducted by preservice elementary teachers towards the end of their initial training at one university. The aim was to locate ways in which they drew on their knowledge of mathematics and mathematics pedagogy in their teaching. A ..."
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Cited by 20 (2 self)
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This paper draws on videotapes of mathematics lessons prepared and conducted by preservice elementary teachers towards the end of their initial training at one university. The aim was to locate ways in which they drew on their knowledge of mathematics and mathematics pedagogy in their teaching. A grounded approach to data analysis led to the identification of a ‘knowledge quartet’, with four broad dimensions, or ‘units’, through which mathematicsrelated knowledge of these beginning teachers could be observed in practice. We term the four units: foundation, transformation, connection and contingency. This paper describes how each of these units is characterised and analyses one of the videotaped lessons, showing how each dimension of the quartet can be identified in the lesson. We claim that the quartet can be used as a framework for lesson observation and for mathematics teaching development.
Issues of Methods and Theory in the Study of Mathematics Teachers' Professed and Attributed Beliefs
 Educational Studies in Mathematics
, 2005
"... ABSTRACT. In research on teachers ’ beliefs, a distinction is often made between what teachers state (“professed beliefs”) and what is reflected in teachers ’ practices (“attributed beliefs”). Researchers claim to have found both consistencies and inconsistencies between professed and attributed bel ..."
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ABSTRACT. In research on teachers ’ beliefs, a distinction is often made between what teachers state (“professed beliefs”) and what is reflected in teachers ’ practices (“attributed beliefs”). Researchers claim to have found both consistencies and inconsistencies between professed and attributed beliefs. In this paper, methods and research designs typically used in studies of teachers ’ beliefs are examined. It is asserted that, in some cases, the perceived discrepancy between professed and attributed beliefs may actually be an artifact of the methods used to collect and analyze relevant data and the particular conceptualizations of beliefs implicit in the research designs. In particular, the apparent dichotomy can be the result of a lack of shared understanding between teachers and researchers of the meaning of terms used to describe beliefs and practices. In addition, it is asserted that it is inappropriate to classify any belief as entirely professed since researchers make various attributions to teachers through choices about data collection, theory, analysis of data, and presentation of findings. Moreover, the emphasis on classifying beliefs in this manner may be inhibiting researchers from developing a more comprehensive understanding of teachers ’ beliefs. Traditional and alternative methods are described, a data example is provided to illustrate the claims, and implications for future research are discussed.
Training teachers to teach probability
 Journal of Statistical Education
, 2004
"... In this paper we analyse the reasons why teaching probability is difficult for mathematics teachers, we describe the contents needed in the didactical preparation of teachers to teach probability and we present examples of activities to carry out this training. Nowadays probability and statistics is ..."
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In this paper we analyse the reasons why teaching probability is difficult for mathematics teachers, we describe the contents needed in the didactical preparation of teachers to teach probability and we present examples of activities to carry out this training. Nowadays probability and statistics is part of the mathematics curricula for primary and secondary school in many countries. The reasons to include this teaching have been repeatedly highlighted over the past 20 years (e.g. Holmes, 1980; Hawkins et al., 1991; VereJones, 1995), and include the usefulness of statistics and probability for daily life, its instrumental role in other disciplines, the need for a basic stochastic knowledge in many professions and its role in developing a critical reasoning. However, teaching probability and statistics is not easy for mathematics teachers. Primary and secondary level mathematics teachers frequently lack specific preparation in statistics education. For example, in Spain, prospective secondary teachers with a major in Mathematics do not receive specific training in statistics education. The situation is even worse for primary teachers, most of whom have not had basic training in statistics and this could be extended to many countries. There can be little support from textbooks and curriculum documents prepared for primary and secondary teachers, because
TEACHERS’ CONCEPTIONS OF PROOF IN THE CONTEXT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL MATHEMATICS
, 2002
"... Current reform efforts in the United States are calling for substantial changes in the nature and role of proof in secondary school mathematics – changes designed to provide all students with rich opportunities and experiences with proof throughout the entire secondary school mathematics curriculu ..."
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Cited by 18 (3 self)
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Current reform efforts in the United States are calling for substantial changes in the nature and role of proof in secondary school mathematics – changes designed to provide all students with rich opportunities and experiences with proof throughout the entire secondary school mathematics curriculum. This study examined 17 experienced secondary school mathematics teachers’ conceptions of proof from their perspectives as teachers of school mathematics. The results suggest that implementing “proof for all” may be difficult for teachers; teachers viewed proof as appropriate for the mathematics education of a minority of students. The results further suggest that teachers tended to view proof in a pedagogically limited way, namely, as a topic of study rather than as a tool for communicating and studying mathematics. Implications for mathematics teacher education are discussed in light of these findings.