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78
QSplat: A Multiresolution Point Rendering System for Large Meshes
, 2000
"... Advances in 3D scanning technologies have enabled the practical creation of meshes with hundreds of millions of polygons. Traditional algorithms for display, simplification, and progressive transmission of meshes are impractical for data sets of this size. We describe a system for representing and p ..."
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Cited by 500 (8 self)
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Advances in 3D scanning technologies have enabled the practical creation of meshes with hundreds of millions of polygons. Traditional algorithms for display, simplification, and progressive transmission of meshes are impractical for data sets of this size. We describe a system for representing and progressively displaying these meshes that combines a multiresolution hierarchy based on bounding spheres with a rendering system based on points. A single data structure is used for view frustum culling, backface culling, levelofdetail selection, and rendering. The representation is compact and can be computed quickly, making it suitable for large data sets. Our implementation, written for use in a largescale 3D digitization project, launches quickly, maintains a usersettable interactive frame rate regardless of object complexity or camera position, yields reasonable image quality during motion, and refines progressively when idle to a high final image quality. We have demonstrated the system on scanned models containing hundreds of millions of samples.
RealTime 3D Model Acquisition
, 2002
"... The digitization of the 3D shape of real objects is a rapidly expanding field, with applications in entertainment, design, and archaeology. We propose a new 3D model acquisition system that permits the user to rotate an object by hand and see a continuouslyupdated model as the object is scanned. Th ..."
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Cited by 225 (7 self)
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The digitization of the 3D shape of real objects is a rapidly expanding field, with applications in entertainment, design, and archaeology. We propose a new 3D model acquisition system that permits the user to rotate an object by hand and see a continuouslyupdated model as the object is scanned. This tight feedback loop allows the user to find and fill holes in the model in real time, and determine when the object has been completely covered. Our system is based on a 60 Hz. structuredlight rangefinder, a realtime variant of ICP (iterative closest points) for alignment, and pointbased merging and rendering algorithms. We demonstrate the ability of our prototype to scan objects faster and with greater ease than conventional model acquisition pipelines.
An evaluation of reconstruction filters for volume rendering
 Proceedings of IEEE Visualization
, 1994
"... To render images from a threedimensional array of sample values, it is necessary to interpolate between the samples. This paper is concerned with interpolation methods that are equivalent to convolving the samples with a reconstruction filter; this covers all commonly used schemes, including tril ..."
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Cited by 169 (1 self)
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To render images from a threedimensional array of sample values, it is necessary to interpolate between the samples. This paper is concerned with interpolation methods that are equivalent to convolving the samples with a reconstruction filter; this covers all commonly used schemes, including trilinear and cubic interpolation. We first outline the formal basis of interpolation in threedimensional signal processing theory. We then propose numerical metrics that can be used to measure filter characteristics that are relevant to the appearance of images generated using that filter. We apply those metrics to several previously used filters and relate the results to isosurface images of the interpolations. We show that the choice of interpolation scheme can have a dramatic effect on image quality, and we discuss the cost/benefit tradeoff inherent in choosing a filter. 1
View Dependent Isosurface Extraction
 In IEEE Visualization ’98
, 1998
"... We propose a new approach to polygonal isosurface extraction that is based on extracting only the visible portion of the isosurface. The visibility tests are done in two phases. First, coarse visibility tests are performed in software to determine the visible cells. These tests are based on hierarch ..."
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Cited by 79 (11 self)
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We propose a new approach to polygonal isosurface extraction that is based on extracting only the visible portion of the isosurface. The visibility tests are done in two phases. First, coarse visibility tests are performed in software to determine the visible cells. These tests are based on hierarchical tiles and shearwarp factorization. The second phase resolves the visible portions of the extracted triangles and is accomplished by the graphics hardware. While the latest isosurface extraction methods have effectively eliminated the search phase bottleneck, the cost of constructing and rendering the isosurface remains high. Many of today's large datasets contain very large and complex isosurfaces that can easily overwhelm even stateoftheart graphics hardware. The proposed approach is output sensitive and is thus well suited for remote visualization applications where the extraction and rendering phases are done on a separate machines. 1 Introduction The marching cubes [11, 23] met...
PiecewiseLinear Interpolation between Polygonal Slices
 Computer Vision and Image Understanding
, 1994
"... In this paper we present a new technique for piecewiselinear surface reconstruction from a series of parallel polygonal crosssections. This is an important problem in medical imaging, surface reconstruction from topographic data, and other applications. We reduce the problem, as in most previous wo ..."
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Cited by 75 (12 self)
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In this paper we present a new technique for piecewiselinear surface reconstruction from a series of parallel polygonal crosssections. This is an important problem in medical imaging, surface reconstruction from topographic data, and other applications. We reduce the problem, as in most previous works, to a series of problems of piecewiselinear interpolation between each pair of successive slices. Our algorithm uses a partial curve matching technique for matching parts of the contours, an optimal triangulation of 3D polygons for resolving the unmatched parts, and a minimum spanning tree heuristic for interpolating between non simply connected regions. Unlike previous attempts at solving this problem, our algorithm seems to handle successfully any kind of data. It allows multiple contours in each slice, with any hierarchy of contour nesting, and avoids the introduction of counterintuitive bridges between contours, proposed in some earlier papers to handle interpolation between multi...
Streaming QSplat: A Viewer for Networked Visualization of Large, Dense Models
, 2001
"... Steady growth in the speeds of network links and graphics accelerator cards has brought increasing interest in streaming transmission of threedimensional data sets. We demonstrate how streaming visualization can be made practical for data sets containing hundreds of millions of samples. Our system ..."
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Cited by 63 (1 self)
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Steady growth in the speeds of network links and graphics accelerator cards has brought increasing interest in streaming transmission of threedimensional data sets. We demonstrate how streaming visualization can be made practical for data sets containing hundreds of millions of samples. Our system is based on QSplat, a multiresolution rendering system for dense polygon meshes that employs a bounding sphere hierarchy data structure and splat rendering. We show how to incorporate viewdependent progressive transmission into QSplat, by having the client request visible portions of the model in order from coarse to fine resolution. In addition, we investigate interaction techniques for improving the eectiveness of streaming data visualization. In particular, we explore colorcoding streamed data by resolution, examine the order in which data should be transmitted in order to minimize visual distraction, and propose tools for giving the user fine control over download order.
Marching Cubes 33: Construction of Topologically Correct Isosurfaces
, 1995
"... An algorithm implemented in the HIGZ graphics package for the construction of isosurfaces from volumetric datasets is discussed. This algorithm is an improved version of the Marching Cubes method. For each cell considered independently, the algorithm permits the construction of a triangle model, the ..."
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Cited by 60 (0 self)
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An algorithm implemented in the HIGZ graphics package for the construction of isosurfaces from volumetric datasets is discussed. This algorithm is an improved version of the Marching Cubes method. For each cell considered independently, the algorithm permits the construction of a triangle model, the topology of which coincides exactly with the topology of the isosurface of the trilinear function. It is shown that there are 33 topologically different configurations, instead of 15 as with the MCmethod. 1 Introduction The Marching Cubes (MC) method [1] is a wellknown method for volume visualization. It produces triangle models of isosurfaces F (x; y; z) = ff of a scalar function given by samples over a cuberille grid. Usually the MCmethod is considered as the basic method for surface rendering in medical applications. However, it can also be applied in many other areas as, for example, for the visualization of implicitly specified functions or for the visualization of calculation resu...
A high accuracy volume renderer for unstructured data
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 1998
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Shape Recovery Algorithms Using Level Sets in 2D/3D Medical Imagery: A StateoftheArt Review
, 2001
"... The class of geometric deformable models, socalled level sets, has brought tremendous impact to medical imagery due to its capability to preserve topology and fast shape recovery. In an effort to facilitate a clear and full understanding of these powerful stateoftheart applied mathematical tools ..."
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Cited by 52 (2 self)
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The class of geometric deformable models, socalled level sets, has brought tremendous impact to medical imagery due to its capability to preserve topology and fast shape recovery. In an effort to facilitate a clear and full understanding of these powerful stateoftheart applied mathematical tools, this paper is an attempt to explore these geometric methods, their implementations and integration of regularization terms to improve the robustness of these topologically independent propagating curves/surfaces. This paper first presents the origination of the level sets, followed by the taxonomy tree of level sets. We then derive the fundamental equation of curve/surface evolution and zerolevel curves/surfaces. The paper then focuses on the first core class of level sets, the socalled level sets "without regularizers". The next section is devoted on a second kind, socalled level sets "with regularizers". In this class, we present four kinds of systems on the design of the regularizers. Next, the paper presents a third kind of level sets, socalled the "bubblebased" techniques. An entire section is dedicated to optimization and quantification techniques for shape recovery when used with the level sets. Finally, the paper concludes with 22 general merits and four demerits on level sets and the future of level sets in medical image segmentation. We present the applications of level sets to complex shapes likethehuman cortex acquired via MRI for neurological image analysis.
A survey of the marching cubes algorithm
, 2006
"... A survey of the development of the marching cubes algorithm [W. Lorensen, H. Cline, Marching cubes: a high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm. Computer Graphics 1987; 21(4):163–9], a wellknown cellbycell method for extraction of isosurfaces from scalar volumetric data sets, is presented ..."
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Cited by 44 (0 self)
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A survey of the development of the marching cubes algorithm [W. Lorensen, H. Cline, Marching cubes: a high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm. Computer Graphics 1987; 21(4):163–9], a wellknown cellbycell method for extraction of isosurfaces from scalar volumetric data sets, is presented. The paper’s primary aim is to survey the development of the algorithm and its computational properties, extensions, and limitations (including the attempts to resolve its limitations). A rich body of publications related to this aim are included. Representative applications and spinoff work are also considered and related techniques are briefly discussed.