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Principles and methods of Testing Finite State Machines  a survey
 PROCEEDINGS OF IEEE
, 1996
"... With advanced computer technology, systems are getting larger to fulfill more complicated tasks, however, they are also becoming less reliable. Consequently, testing is an indispensable part of system design and implementation; yet it has proved to be a formidable task for complex systems. This moti ..."
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Cited by 345 (16 self)
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With advanced computer technology, systems are getting larger to fulfill more complicated tasks, however, they are also becoming less reliable. Consequently, testing is an indispensable part of system design and implementation; yet it has proved to be a formidable task for complex systems. This motivates the study of testing finite state machines to ensure the correct functioning of systems and to discover aspects of their behavior. A finite state machine contains a finite number of states and produces outputs on state transitions after receiving inputs. Finite state machines are widely used to model systems in diverse areas, including sequential circuits, certain types of programs, and, more recently, communication protocols. In a testing problem we have a machine about which we lack some information; we would like to deduce this information by providing a sequence of inputs to the machine and observing the outputs produced. Because of its practical importance and theoretical interest, the problem of testing finite state machines has been studied in different areas and at various times. The earliest published literature on this topic dates back to the 50’s. Activities in the 60’s and early 70’s were motivated mainly by automata theory and sequential circuit testing. The area seemed to have mostly died down until a few years ago when the testing problem was resurrected and is now being studied anew due to its applications to conformance testing of communication protocols. While some old problems which had been open for decades were resolved recently, new concepts and more intriguing problems from new applications emerge. We review the fundamental problems in testing finite state machines and techniques for solving these problems, tracing progress in the area from its inception to the present and the state of the art. In addition, we discuss extensions of finite state machines and some other topics related to testing.
Reactive, Generative and Stratified Models of Probabilistic Processes
 Information and Computation
, 1990
"... ion Let E; E 0 be PCCS expressions. The intermodel abstraction rule IMARGR is defined by E ff[p] \Gamma\Gamma! i E 0 =) E ff[p= G (E;fffg)] ae \Gamma\Gamma\Gamma\Gamma\Gamma\Gamma! i E 0 This rule uses the generative normalization function to convert generative probabilities to reactive ..."
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Cited by 195 (8 self)
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ion Let E; E 0 be PCCS expressions. The intermodel abstraction rule IMARGR is defined by E ff[p] \Gamma\Gamma! i E 0 =) E ff[p= G (E;fffg)] ae \Gamma\Gamma\Gamma\Gamma\Gamma\Gamma! i E 0 This rule uses the generative normalization function to convert generative probabilities to reactive ones, thereby abstracting away from the relative probabilities between different actions. We can now define 'GR ('G (P )) as the reactive transition system that can be inferred from P 's generative transition system via IMARGR . By the same procedure as described at the end of Section 3.1, 'GR can be extended to a mapping 'GR : j GG ! j GR . Write P GR ¸ Q if P; Q 2 Pr are reactive bisimulation equivalent with respect to the transitions derivable from G+IMARGR , i.e. the theory obtained by adding IMARGR to the rules of Figure 7. The equivalence GR ¸ is defined just like R ¸ but using the cPDF ¯GR instead of ¯R . ¯GR is defined by ¯GR (P; ff; S) = X i2I R (=I G ) fj p i j G+ I...
Distinguishing Tests for Nondeterministic and Probabilistic Machines
, 1995
"... We study the problem of uniquely identifying the initial state of a given finitestate machine from among a set of possible choices, based on the inputoutput behavior. Equivalently, given a set of machines, the problem is to design a test that distinguishes among them. We consider nondeterministic ..."
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Cited by 46 (3 self)
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We study the problem of uniquely identifying the initial state of a given finitestate machine from among a set of possible choices, based on the inputoutput behavior. Equivalently, given a set of machines, the problem is to design a test that distinguishes among them. We consider nondeterministic machines as well as probabilistic machines. In both cases, we show that it is Pspacecomplete to decide whether there is a preset distinguishing strategy (i.e. a sequence of inputs fixed in advance), and it is Exptimecomplete to decide whether there is an adaptive distinguishing strategy (i.e. when the next input can be chosen based on the outputs observed so far). The probabilistic testing is closely related to probabilistic games, or Markov Decision Processes, with incomplete information. We also provide optimal bounds for deciding whether such games have strategies winning with probability 1. 1 Introduction Finitestate machines have been widely used to model systems in diverse areas o...
Refinementoriented probability for CSP
, 1995
"... Jones and Plotkin give a general construction for forming a probabilistic powerdomain over any directedcomplete partial order [Jon90, JP89]. We apply their technique to the failures/divergences semantic model for Communicating Sequential Processes [Hoa85]. The resulting probabilistic model supports ..."
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Cited by 44 (7 self)
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Jones and Plotkin give a general construction for forming a probabilistic powerdomain over any directedcomplete partial order [Jon90, JP89]. We apply their technique to the failures/divergences semantic model for Communicating Sequential Processes [Hoa85]. The resulting probabilistic model supports a new binary operator, probabilistic choice, and retains all operators of CSP including its two existing forms of choice. An advantage of using the general construction is that it is easy to see which CSP identities remain true in the probabilistic model. A surprising consequence however is that probabilistic choice distributes through all other operators; such algebraic mobility means that the syntactic position of the choice operator gives little information about when the choice actually must occur. That in turn leads to some interesting interaction between probability and nondeterminism. A simple communications protocol is used to illustrate the probabilistic algebra, and several sugg...
ModelBased Testing of ObjectOriented Reactive Systems with Spec Explorer
, 2007
"... Testing is one of the costliest aspects of commercial software development. Modelbased testing is a promising approach addressing these deficits. At Microsoft, modelbased testing technology developed by the Foundations of Software Engineering group in Microsoft Research has been used since 2003. T ..."
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Cited by 38 (11 self)
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Testing is one of the costliest aspects of commercial software development. Modelbased testing is a promising approach addressing these deficits. At Microsoft, modelbased testing technology developed by the Foundations of Software Engineering group in Microsoft Research has been used since 2003. The second generation of this tool set, Spec Explorer, deployed in 2004, is now used on a daily basis by Microsoft product groups for testing operating system components,.NET framework components and other areas. This chapter provides a comprehensive survey of the concepts of the tool and their foundations. 1
Characterising testing preorders for finite probabilistic processes
 In LICS’07: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA
"... In 1992 Wang & Larsen extended the may and must preorders of De Nicola and Hennessy to processes featuring probabilistic as well as nondeterministic choice. They concluded with two problems that have remained open throughout the years, namely to find complete axiomatisations and alternative cha ..."
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Cited by 30 (10 self)
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In 1992 Wang & Larsen extended the may and must preorders of De Nicola and Hennessy to processes featuring probabilistic as well as nondeterministic choice. They concluded with two problems that have remained open throughout the years, namely to find complete axiomatisations and alternative characterisations for these preorders. This paper solves both problems for finite processes with silent moves. It characterises the may preorder in terms of simulation, and the must preorder in terms of failure simulation. It also gives a characterisation of both preorders using a modal logic. Finally it axiomatises both preorders over a probabilistic version of CSP. 1.
Optimal strategies for testing nondeterministic systems
 In ISSTA’04, volume 29 of Software Engineering Notes
, 2004
"... This paper deals with testing of nondeterministic software systems. We assume that a model of the nondeterministic system is given by a directed graph with two kind of vertices: states and choice points. Choice points represent the nondeterministic behaviour of the implementation under test (IUT). E ..."
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Cited by 25 (6 self)
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This paper deals with testing of nondeterministic software systems. We assume that a model of the nondeterministic system is given by a directed graph with two kind of vertices: states and choice points. Choice points represent the nondeterministic behaviour of the implementation under test (IUT). Edges represent transitions. They have costs and probabilities. Test case generation in this setting amounts to generation of a game strategy. The two players are the testing tool (TT) and the IUT. The game explores the graph. The TT leads the IUT by selecting an edge at the state vertices. At the choice points the control goes to the IUT. A game strategy decides which edge should be taken by the TT in each state. This paper presents three novel algorithms 1) to determine an optimal strategy for the bounded reachability game, where optimality means maximizing the probability to reach any of the given final states from a given start state while at the same time minimizing the costs of traversal; 2) to determine a winning strategy for the bounded reachability game, which guarantees that given final vertices are reached, regardless how the IUT reacts; 3) to determine a fast converging edge covering strategy, which guarantees that the probability to cover all edges quickly converges to 1 if TT follows the strategy.
Representing Nondeterministic and Probabilistic Behaviour in Reactive Processes
, 1993
"... . In this paper we investigate ways of modelling communicating processes that display both nondeterministic and probabilistic behaviour. We present an operational model for a probabilistic version of CSP, and describe a number of ways of abstracting a denotational semantics from such a model, so as ..."
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Cited by 24 (0 self)
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. In this paper we investigate ways of modelling communicating processes that display both nondeterministic and probabilistic behaviour. We present an operational model for a probabilistic version of CSP, and describe a number of ways of abstracting a denotational semantics from such a model, so as to represent a process by a set of probability functions, one function for each way of resolving the nondeterministic choices. We then prove an interesting although disappointingresult, which shows that no such denotational model can be compositional. We end by identifying a problem with the operational model, which is shared by all similar models known to us, and briefly give some indications as to how this problem might be overcome. 1. Introduction In recent years, an important problem in the study of communicating systems has been the modelling of probabilistic behaviour. This is necessary if we are to argue formally about unreliable behaviour (for example that displayed by an unre...
Testing and Refinement for Nondeterministic and Probabilistic Processes
 In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Formal Techniques in RealTime and FaultTolerant Systems, LNCS 863
, 1994
"... . Transition systems are a basic semantic model for formal description, specification, and analysis of concurrent and distributed systems. In order to describe and analyze aspects of reliability, such as the likelihood of trace and failure, this model has been extended in various ways to handle prob ..."
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Cited by 22 (0 self)
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. Transition systems are a basic semantic model for formal description, specification, and analysis of concurrent and distributed systems. In order to describe and analyze aspects of reliability, such as the likelihood of trace and failure, this model has been extended in various ways to handle probabilistic behavior. To use these models for specification and stepwise development of systems, it is important to develop appropriate refinement preorders. In the paper, we develop refinement preorders based on a framework of testing for a model that represents both nondeterministic and probabilistic choices as independent concepts [YL92]. Our main contribution is a notion of reward testing, and a denotational characterization of a testing preorder, which corresponds to a natural probabilistic extension of the trace model [Hoa85]. 1 Introduction Transition systems are wellestablished as a basic semantic model for the formal description, specification, and analysis of concurrent and distrib...