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17
The Viterbi algorithm
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 1973
"... vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 211220, 1951. [7] J. L. Anderson and J. W..Ryon, “Electromagnetic radiation in accelerated systems, ” Phys. Rev., vol. 181, pp. 17651775, 1969. [8] C. V. Heer, “Resonant frequencies of an electromagnetic cavity in an accelerated system of reference, ” Phys. Reu., vol. 134, pp. A ..."
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Cited by 985 (3 self)
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vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 211220, 1951. [7] J. L. Anderson and J. W..Ryon, “Electromagnetic radiation in accelerated systems, ” Phys. Rev., vol. 181, pp. 17651775, 1969. [8] C. V. Heer, “Resonant frequencies of an electromagnetic cavity in an accelerated system of reference, ” Phys. Reu., vol. 134, pp. A799A804, 1964. [9] T. C. Mo, “Theory of electrodynamics in media in noninertial frames and applications, ” J. Math. Phys., vol. 11, pp. 25892610, 1970.
RunlengthLimited Sequences
 Proc. IEEE
, 1990
"... this paper will concentrate, accepts the bit stream (extra bits added by the errorcorrection system included) as its input and converts the stream to a waveform suitable for the specific recorder requirements. The object of the recording code is to bring structure into a data stream that is genera ..."
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Cited by 14 (1 self)
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this paper will concentrate, accepts the bit stream (extra bits added by the errorcorrection system included) as its input and converts the stream to a waveform suitable for the specific recorder requirements. The object of the recording code is to bring structure into a data stream that is generally not present in the information supplied by the user. All the aforementioned coding stages are present in a modern dig ital video recorder [1]
Write channel model for bitpatterned media recording
 IEEE Trans. on Magn
, 2011
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On codes with spectral nulls at rational submultiples of the symbol frequency
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 1987
"... AbstractIn digital data transmission (respectively, storage systems), line codes (respectively, recording codes) are used to tailor the spectrum of the encoded sequences to satisfy constraints imposed by the channel transfer characteristics or other system requirements. For instance, pilot tone ins ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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AbstractIn digital data transmission (respectively, storage systems), line codes (respectively, recording codes) are used to tailor the spectrum of the encoded sequences to satisfy constraints imposed by the channel transfer characteristics or other system requirements. For instance, pilot tone insertion requires codes with zero mean and zero spectral density at tone frequencies. Embedded tracking/focus servo signals produce similar needs. Codes are studied with spectral nulls at frequencies f = kf, /n, where f, is the symbol frequency and k, n are relatively prime integers with k I n; in other words, nulls at rational submultiples of the symbol frequency. A necessary and sufficient condition is given for a null at f in the form of a finite discrete Fourier transform (DFT) running sum condition. A corollary of the result is the algebraic characterization of spectral nulls which can be simultaneously realized. Specializing to binary sequences, we describe canonical Mealytype state diagrams (directed graphs with edges labeled by binary symbols) for each set of realizable spectral nulls. Using the canonical diagrams, we obtain a frequency domain characterization of the spectral null systems obtained by the technique of time domain interleaving. S I.
A tight signalband power bound on mismatch noise in a mismatch shaping digitaltoanalog converter
 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
, 2004
"... Abstract—Many applications employ digitaltoanalog converters (DACs) to obtain the advantages of digital processing (e.g., low power and physical size, resilience to noise, etc.) to generate signals, such as voltages, that are analog in nature. Given the appropriate numerical representation of its ..."
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Abstract—Many applications employ digitaltoanalog converters (DACs) to obtain the advantages of digital processing (e.g., low power and physical size, resilience to noise, etc.) to generate signals, such as voltages, that are analog in nature. Given the appropriate numerical representation of its input, the DAC ideally behaves as a linear gain element. However, as a result of inevitable component mismatches, the output of a multibit DAC (i.e., a DAC designed to output more than two analog levels) is a nonlinear function of its input. The resulting distortion, called DAC noise, limits the overall signaltonoise ratio (SNR) and hence the obtainable accuracy of the DAC. Mismatchshaping DACs exploit builtin redundancy to suppress the DAC noise in the input signal’s frequency band. Although mismatchshaping DACs are widely used in commercial products, little theory regarding the structure of their DAC noise has been published to date. Consequently, designers have been forced to rely upon simulations to estimate DAC noise power and behavior, which can be misleading because the DAC noise depends on the DAC input. This paper addresses this problem. It presents an analysis of the DAC noise power spectral density (PSD) in a commonly used mismatchshaping DAC: the dithered firstorder lowpass treestructured DAC. This design ensures that its DAC noise has a spectral null at dc (i.e., zero frequency) by generating digital, dcfree sequences using the same techniques that have been developed for line codes. An expression is derived for the DAC noise PSD that depends on the statistics of these sequences and is used to show various properties of the DAC noise. Specifically, an attainable bound is derived for the signalband DAC noise power that can be used to predict worst case performance in practical circuits. Index Terms—Analogtodigital, data converters, dcfree sequences, delta–sigma (16), digitaltoanalog, dynamic element matching, mismatch shaping, multibit, sigma–delta, spectral shaping. I.
the canceller output. These data converters constitute the
, 1982
"... AbstractThis paper describes a new technique for implementing an echo canceller for fullduplex data transmission (such as in digital subscriber loops and voiceband data sets). The canceller can operate in spite of timeinvariant nonlinearities in the echo channel or in the implementation of the ec ..."
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AbstractThis paper describes a new technique for implementing an echo canceller for fullduplex data transmission (such as in digital subscriber loops and voiceband data sets). The canceller can operate in spite of timeinvariant nonlinearities in the echo channel or in the implementation of the echo canceller itself (such as in the D/A converters). The basic structure of the linear echo canceller is not changed, but taps are simply added to account for the nonlinearity. The number of taps which must be added depends on the degree of nonlinearity which must be compensated. Numerical results based on computer simulation are given which show that typical nonlinearities encountered in MOS D/A converters can be compensated by a relatively small number of taps added to the linear echo canceller, and substantial improvement in the cancellation results. Paper approved by the Editor for Data Communication Systems of the IEEE Communications Society for publication after presentation at consists of an inherently digital bit stream. This suggests that the InternationalConference on Communications, Philadelphia, PA, June the actual cancellation be done digitally, requiring A/D con
11. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
, 1972
"... [6] H. Epheser and T. Schlomka, “Flachengrossen und elektrodynamische ..."
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19 Spectrum Control
"... Coding, which refers to the translation between the userprovided information bits (source bits) and the transmitted data symbols (coded symbols), Errorcontrol coding, whose aim is to mitigate the effects of noise, was discussed in Chapters 12 and 13. This chapter discusses the use of coding to con ..."
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Coding, which refers to the translation between the userprovided information bits (source bits) and the transmitted data symbols (coded symbols), Errorcontrol coding, whose aim is to mitigate the effects of noise, was discussed in Chapters 12 and 13. This chapter discusses the use of coding to control the statistics of the data symbols, thereby introducing a measure of control over the spectrum of the transmitted signal. For example, undesired correlations among information bits can be removed by scrambling, which is a reversible transformation of the bits in a way that affects the statistics. Alternatively, the spectrum can be controlled by introducing a controlled correlation among data symbols in the form of redundancy (the remaining sections). In Chapters 12 and 13 we saw applications of redundancy to the correction and prevention of channel errors. One way to control the spectrum is through the design of a line code (Sections 19.2 and 19.3). One major motivation in baseband systems is the problem of baseline wander introduced by the a.c. coupling inherent in transformers and broadband amplifiers. This phenomenon is described in Section 19.1. In Section 19.2 a number of different types of line codes for baseband systems are described, most of them oriented toward control of baseline wander.
A new method for spectral shaping coding
 IEEE WINTER 1998 INFORMATION THEORY WORKSHOP
, 1998
"... By generalization of the charge concept a feed back controlled bit stuff encoder is introduced for spectral shaping. There is demonstrated the spectral shaping property and an approximate formula is given for the output's spectrum as a function of the applied loop filter's characteristics. ..."
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By generalization of the charge concept a feed back controlled bit stuff encoder is introduced for spectral shaping. There is demonstrated the spectral shaping property and an approximate formula is given for the output's spectrum as a function of the applied loop filter's characteristics. A host of calculated and simulated results are given.