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Induction of Decision Trees
 MACH. LEARN
, 1986
"... The technology for building knowledgebased systems by inductive inference from examples has been demonstrated successfully in several practical applications. This paper summarizes an approach to synthesizing decision trees that has been used in a variety of systems, and it describes one such syste ..."
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Cited by 4381 (4 self)
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The technology for building knowledgebased systems by inductive inference from examples has been demonstrated successfully in several practical applications. This paper summarizes an approach to synthesizing decision trees that has been used in a variety of systems, and it describes one such system, ID3, in detail. Results from recent studies show ways in which the methodology can be modified to deal with information that is noisy and/or incomplete. A reported shortcoming of the basic algorithm is discussed and two means of overcoming it are compared. The paper concludes with illustrations of current research directions.
Fast Algorithms for Mining Association Rules
, 1994
"... We consider the problem of discovering association rules between items in a large database of sales transactions. We present two new algorithms for solving this problem that are fundamentally different from the known algorithms. Empirical evaluation shows that these algorithms outperform the known a ..."
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Cited by 3615 (15 self)
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We consider the problem of discovering association rules between items in a large database of sales transactions. We present two new algorithms for solving this problem that are fundamentally different from the known algorithms. Empirical evaluation shows that these algorithms outperform the known algorithms by factors ranging from three for small problems to more than an order of magnitude for large problems. We also show how the best features of the two proposed algorithms can be combined into a hybrid algorithm, called AprioriHybrid. Scaleup experiments show that AprioriHybrid scales linearly with the number of transactions. AprioriHybrid also has excellent scaleup properties with respect to the transaction size and the number of items in the database.
Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques
, 2000
"... Our capabilities of both generating and collecting data have been increasing rapidly in the last several decades. Contributing factors include the widespread use of bar codes for most commercial products, the computerization of many business, scientific and government transactions and managements, a ..."
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Cited by 3156 (22 self)
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Our capabilities of both generating and collecting data have been increasing rapidly in the last several decades. Contributing factors include the widespread use of bar codes for most commercial products, the computerization of many business, scientific and government transactions and managements, and advances in data collection tools ranging from scanned texture and image platforms, to online instrumentation in manufacturing and shopping, and to satellite remote sensing systems. In addition, popular use of the World Wide Web as a global information system has flooded us with a tremendous amount of data and information. This explosive growth in stored data has generated an urgent need for new techniques and automated tools that can intelligently assist us in transforming the vast amounts of data into useful information and knowledge. This book explores the concepts and techniques of data mining, a promising and flourishing frontier in database systems and new database applications. Data mining, also popularly referred to as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), is the automated or convenient extraction of patterns representing knowledge implicitly stored in large databases, data warehouses, and other massive information repositories. Data mining is a multidisciplinary field, drawing work from areas including database technology, artificial intelligence, machine learning, neural networks, statistics, pattern recognition, knowledge based systems, knowledge acquisition, information retrieval, high performance computing, and data visualization. We present the material in
Fast Effective Rule Induction
, 1995
"... Many existing rule learning systems are computationally expensive on large noisy datasets. In this paper we evaluate the recentlyproposed rule learning algorithm IREP on a large and diverse collection of benchmark problems. We show that while IREP is extremely efficient, it frequently gives error r ..."
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Cited by 1271 (21 self)
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Many existing rule learning systems are computationally expensive on large noisy datasets. In this paper we evaluate the recentlyproposed rule learning algorithm IREP on a large and diverse collection of benchmark problems. We show that while IREP is extremely efficient, it frequently gives error rates higher than those of C4.5 and C4.5rules. We then propose a number of modifications resulting in an algorithm RIPPERk that is very competitive with C4.5rules with respect to error rates, but much more efficient on large samples. RIPPERk obtains error rates lower than or equivalent to C4.5rules on 22 of 37 benchmark problems, scales nearly linearly with the number of training examples, and can efficiently process noisy datasets containing hundreds of thousands of examples.
Learning Stochastic Logic Programs
, 2000
"... Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) have been shown to be a generalisation of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), stochastic contextfree grammars, and directed Bayes' nets. A stochastic logic program consists of a set of labelled clauses p:C where p is in the interval [0,1] and C is a firstorder r ..."
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Cited by 1193 (81 self)
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Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) have been shown to be a generalisation of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), stochastic contextfree grammars, and directed Bayes' nets. A stochastic logic program consists of a set of labelled clauses p:C where p is in the interval [0,1] and C is a firstorder rangerestricted definite clause. This paper summarises the syntax, distributional semantics and proof techniques for SLPs and then discusses how a standard Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) system, Progol, has been modied to support learning of SLPs. The resulting system 1) nds an SLP with uniform probability labels on each definition and nearmaximal Bayes posterior probability and then 2) alters the probability labels to further increase the posterior probability. Stage 1) is implemented within CProgol4.5, which differs from previous versions of Progol by allowing userdefined evaluation functions written in Prolog. It is shown that maximising the Bayesian posterior function involves nding SLPs with short derivations of the examples. Search pruning with the Bayesian evaluation function is carried out in the same way as in previous versions of CProgol. The system is demonstrated with worked examples involving the learning of probability distributions over sequences as well as the learning of simple forms of uncertain knowledge.
Greedy Function Approximation: A Gradient Boosting Machine
 Annals of Statistics
, 2000
"... Function approximation is viewed from the perspective of numerical optimization in function space, rather than parameter space. A connection is made between stagewise additive expansions and steepest{descent minimization. A general gradient{descent \boosting" paradigm is developed for additi ..."
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Cited by 997 (12 self)
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Function approximation is viewed from the perspective of numerical optimization in function space, rather than parameter space. A connection is made between stagewise additive expansions and steepest{descent minimization. A general gradient{descent \boosting" paradigm is developed for additive expansions based on any tting criterion. Specic algorithms are presented for least{squares, least{absolute{deviation, and Huber{M loss functions for regression, and multi{class logistic likelihood for classication. Special enhancements are derived for the particular case where the individual additive components are regression trees, and tools for interpreting such \TreeBoost" models are presented. Gradient boosting of regression trees produces competitive, highly robust, interpretable procedures for both regression and classication, especially appropriate for mining less than clean data. Connections between this approach and the boosting methods of Freund and Shapire 1996, and Frie...
PrivacyPreserving Data Mining
, 2000
"... A fruitful direction for future data mining research will be the development of techniques that incorporate privacy concerns. Specifically, we address the following question. Since the primary task in data mining is the development of models about aggregated data, can we develop accurate models with ..."
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Cited by 847 (3 self)
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A fruitful direction for future data mining research will be the development of techniques that incorporate privacy concerns. Specifically, we address the following question. Since the primary task in data mining is the development of models about aggregated data, can we develop accurate models without access to precise information in individual data records? We consider the concrete case of building a decisiontree classifier from tredning data in which the values of individual records have been perturbed. The resulting data records look very different from the original records and the distribution of data values is also very different from the original distribution. While it is not possible to accurately estimate original values in individual data records, we propose anovel reconstruction procedure to accurately estimate the distribution of original data values. By using these reconstructed distributions, we are able to build classifiers whose accuracy is comparable to the accuracy of classifiers built with the original data.
Detecting faces in images: A survey
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2002
"... Images containing faces are essential to intelligent visionbased human computer interaction, and research efforts in face processing include face recognition, face tracking, pose estimation, and expression recognition. However, many reported methods assume that the faces in an image or an image se ..."
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Cited by 840 (4 self)
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Images containing faces are essential to intelligent visionbased human computer interaction, and research efforts in face processing include face recognition, face tracking, pose estimation, and expression recognition. However, many reported methods assume that the faces in an image or an image sequence have been identified and localized. To build fully automated systems that analyze the information contained in face images, robust and efficient face detection algorithms are required. Given a single image, the goal of face detection is to identify all image regions which contain a face regardless of its threedimensional position, orientation, and the lighting conditions. Such a problem is challenging because faces are nonrigid and have a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. Numerous techniques have been developed to detect faces in a single image, and the purpose of this paper is to categorize and evaluate these algorithms. We also discuss relevant issues such as data collection, evaluation metrics, and benchmarking. After analyzing these algorithms and identifying their limitations, we conclude with several promising directions for future research.
On the optimality of the simple Bayesian classifier under zeroone loss
 MACHINE LEARNING
, 1997
"... The simple Bayesian classifier is known to be optimal when attributes are independent given the class, but the question of whether other sufficient conditions for its optimality exist has so far not been explored. Empirical results showing that it performs surprisingly well in many domains containin ..."
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Cited by 819 (27 self)
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The simple Bayesian classifier is known to be optimal when attributes are independent given the class, but the question of whether other sufficient conditions for its optimality exist has so far not been explored. Empirical results showing that it performs surprisingly well in many domains containing clear attribute dependences suggest that the answer to this question may be positive. This article shows that, although the Bayesian classifier’s probability estimates are only optimal under quadratic loss if the independence assumption holds, the classifier itself can be optimal under zeroone loss (misclassification rate) even when this assumption is violated by a wide margin. The region of quadraticloss optimality of the Bayesian classifier is in fact a secondorder infinitesimal fraction of the region of zeroone optimality. This implies that the Bayesian classifier has a much greater range of applicability than previously thought. For example, in this article it is shown to be optimal for learning conjunctions and disjunctions, even though they violate the independence assumption. Further, studies in artificial domains show that it will often outperform more powerful classifiers for common training set sizes and numbers of attributes, even if its bias is a priori much less appropriate to the domain. This article’s results also imply that detecting attribute dependence is not necessarily the best way to extend the Bayesian classifier, and this is also verified empirically.