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61
Wavelet shrinkage: asymptopia
 Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Ser. B
, 1995
"... Considerable e ort has been directed recently to develop asymptotically minimax methods in problems of recovering in nitedimensional objects (curves, densities, spectral densities, images) from noisy data. A rich and complex body of work has evolved, with nearly or exactly minimax estimators bein ..."
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Cited by 297 (36 self)
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Considerable e ort has been directed recently to develop asymptotically minimax methods in problems of recovering in nitedimensional objects (curves, densities, spectral densities, images) from noisy data. A rich and complex body of work has evolved, with nearly or exactly minimax estimators being obtained for a variety of interesting problems. Unfortunately, the results have often not been translated into practice, for a variety of reasons { sometimes, similarity to known methods, sometimes, computational intractability, and sometimes, lack of spatial adaptivity. We discuss a method for curve estimation based on n noisy data; one translates the empirical wavelet coe cients towards the origin by an amount p p 2 log(n) = n. The method is di erent from methods in common use today, is computationally practical, and is spatially adaptive; thus it avoids a number of previous objections to minimax estimators. At the same time, the method is nearly minimax for a wide variety of loss functions { e.g. pointwise error, global error measured in L p norms, pointwise and global error in estimation of derivatives { and for a wide range of smoothness classes, including standard Holder classes, Sobolev classes, and Bounded Variation. This is amuch broader nearoptimality than anything previously proposed in the minimax literature. Finally, the theory underlying the method is interesting, as it exploits a correspondence between statistical questions and questions of optimal recovery and informationbased complexity.
Nonlinear solution of linear inverse problems by waveletvaguelette decomposition
, 1992
"... We describe the WaveletVaguelette Decomposition (WVD) of a linear inverse problem. It is a substitute for the singular value decomposition (SVD) of an inverse problem, and it exists for a class of special inverse problems of homogeneous type { such asnumerical di erentiation, inversion of Abeltype ..."
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Cited by 248 (12 self)
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We describe the WaveletVaguelette Decomposition (WVD) of a linear inverse problem. It is a substitute for the singular value decomposition (SVD) of an inverse problem, and it exists for a class of special inverse problems of homogeneous type { such asnumerical di erentiation, inversion of Abeltype transforms, certain convolution transforms, and the Radon Transform. We propose to solve illposed linear inverse problems by nonlinearly \shrinking" the WVD coe cients of the noisy, indirect data. Our approach o ers signi cant advantages over traditional SVD inversion in the case of recovering spatially inhomogeneous objects. We suppose that observations are contaminated by white noise and that the object is an unknown element of a Besov space. We prove that nonlinear WVD shrinkage can be tuned to attain the minimax rate of convergence, for L 2 loss, over the entire Besov scale. The important case of Besov spaces Bp;q, p <2, which model spatial inhomogeneity, is included. In comparison, linear procedures { SVD included { cannot attain optimal rates of convergence over such classes in the case p<2. For example, our methods achieve faster rates of convergence, for objects known to lie in the Bump Algebra or in Bounded Variation, than any linear procedure.
Unconditional bases are optimal bases for data compression and for statistical estimation
 Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis
, 1993
"... An orthogonal basis of L 2 which is also an unconditional basis of a functional space F is a kind of optimal basis for compressing, estimating, and recovering functions in F. Simple thresholding operations, applied in the unconditional basis, work essentially better for compressing, estimating, and ..."
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Cited by 172 (21 self)
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An orthogonal basis of L 2 which is also an unconditional basis of a functional space F is a kind of optimal basis for compressing, estimating, and recovering functions in F. Simple thresholding operations, applied in the unconditional basis, work essentially better for compressing, estimating, and recovering than they do in any other orthogonal basis. In fact, simple thresholding in an unconditional basis works essentially better for recovery and estimation than other methods, period. (Performance is measured in an asymptotic minimax sense.) As an application, we formalize and prove Mallat's Heuristic, which says that wavelet bases are optimal for representing functions containing singularities, when there may be an arbitrary number of singularities, arbitrarily distributed.
Recovering Edges in IllPosed Inverse Problems: Optimality of Curvelet Frames
, 2000
"... We consider a model problem of recovering a function f(x1,x2) from noisy Radon data. The function f to be recovered is assumed smooth apart from a discontinuity along a C2 curve – i.e. an edge. We use the continuum white noise model, with noise level ɛ. Traditional linear methods for solving such in ..."
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Cited by 78 (14 self)
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We consider a model problem of recovering a function f(x1,x2) from noisy Radon data. The function f to be recovered is assumed smooth apart from a discontinuity along a C2 curve – i.e. an edge. We use the continuum white noise model, with noise level ɛ. Traditional linear methods for solving such inverse problems behave poorly in the presence of edges. Qualitatively, the reconstructions are blurred near the edges; quantitatively, they give in our model Mean Squared Errors (MSEs) that tend to zero with noise level ɛ only as O(ɛ1/2)asɛ → 0. A recent innovation – nonlinear shrinkage in the wavelet domain – visually improves edge sharpness and improves MSE convergence to O(ɛ2/3). However, as we show here, this rate is not optimal. In fact, essentially optimal performance is obtained by deploying the recentlyintroduced tight frames of curvelets in this setting. Curvelets are smooth, highly anisotropic elements ideally suited for detecting and synthesizing curved edges. To deploy them in the Radon setting, we construct a curveletbased biorthogonal decomposition
Adaptive estimation of linear functionals in Hilbert scales from indirect white noise observations
 Fields
, 1999
"... We consider adaptive estimating the value of a linear functional from indirect white noise observations. For a flexible approach, the problem is embedded in an abstract Hilbert scale. We develop an adaptive estimator that is rate optimal within a logarithmic factor simultaneously over a wide collect ..."
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Cited by 27 (4 self)
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We consider adaptive estimating the value of a linear functional from indirect white noise observations. For a flexible approach, the problem is embedded in an abstract Hilbert scale. We develop an adaptive estimator that is rate optimal within a logarithmic factor simultaneously over a wide collection of balls in the Hilbert scale. It is shown that the proposed estimator has the best possible adaptive properties for a wide range of linear functionals. The case of discretized indirect white noise observations is studied, and the adaptive estimator in this setting is developed. Keywords: adaptive estimation, discretization, Hilbert scales, inverse problems, linear functionals, regularization, minimax risk. Running title: Adaptive inverse estimation of linear functionals Department of Statistics, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel. email: goldensh@rstat.haifa.ac.il y Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Mathematics, Tereshenkivska str. 3, 252601 Kiev4, Uk...
Neoclassical minimax problems, thresholding and adaptive function estimation Bernoulli
, 1996
"... 2 We study the problem of estimating from data Y N ( ; ) under squarederror loss. We de ne three new scalar minimax problems in which the risk is weighted by the size of. Simple thresholding gives asymptotically minimax estimates of all three problems. We indicate the relationships of the new probl ..."
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Cited by 22 (1 self)
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2 We study the problem of estimating from data Y N ( ; ) under squarederror loss. We de ne three new scalar minimax problems in which the risk is weighted by the size of. Simple thresholding gives asymptotically minimax estimates of all three problems. We indicate the relationships of the new problems to each other and to two other neoclassical problems: the problems of the bounded normal mean and of the riskconstrained normal mean. Via the wavelet transform, these results have implications for adaptive function estimation, to: (1) estimating functions of unknown type and degree of smoothness in a global ` 2 norm; (2) estimating a function of unknown degree of local Holder smoothness at a xed point. In setting (2), the scalar minimax results imply: (a) that it is not possible to fully adapt to unknown degree of smoothness { adaptation imposes a performance cost; and (b) that simple thresholding of the empirical wavelet transform gives an estimate of a function at a xed point which is, to within constants, optimally adaptive to unknown degree of smoothness.
On adaptive inverse estimation of linear functionals in Hilbert scales. Bernoulli
, 2003
"... We address the problem of estimating the value of a linear functional h f, xi from random noisy observations of y Ax in Hilbert scales. Both the white noise and density observation models are considered. We propose an estimation procedure that adapts to unknown smoothness of x, of f, and of the noi ..."
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Cited by 14 (0 self)
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We address the problem of estimating the value of a linear functional h f, xi from random noisy observations of y Ax in Hilbert scales. Both the white noise and density observation models are considered. We propose an estimation procedure that adapts to unknown smoothness of x, of f, and of the noise covariance operator. It is shown that accuracy of this adaptive estimator is worse only by a logarithmic factor than one could achieve in the case of known smoothness. As an illustrative example, the problem of deconvolving a bivariate density with singular support is considered.
Gaussian white noise models: some results for monotone functions
 In Crossing Boundaries: Statistical Essays in Honor of Jack Hall, IMS Lecture Notes–Monograph Series
, 2003
"... Gaussian white noise models have become increasingly popular as a canonical type of model in which to address certain statistical problems. We briefly review some statistical problems formulated in terms of Gaussian "white noise", and pursue a particular group of problems connected with th ..."
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Cited by 14 (4 self)
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Gaussian white noise models have become increasingly popular as a canonical type of model in which to address certain statistical problems. We briefly review some statistical problems formulated in terms of Gaussian "white noise", and pursue a particular group of problems connected with the estimation of monotone functions. These new results are related to the recent development of likelihood ratio tests for monotone functions studied by [2]. We conclude with some open problems connected with multivariate interval censoring. 1. Introduction. This paper briefly reviews some of the recent research involving white noise models, and then develops some new results for statistical inference about monotone functions in the presence of white noise. The themes developed here differ substantially from the talk (on Semiparametric Models with Sum Tangent Spaces) which I presented at the Rochester meeting held in the Fall of 1999
MINIMAX ESTIMATION OF LINEAR FUNCTIONALS OVER NONCONVEX PARAMETER SPACES
, 2004
"... The minimax theory for estimating linear functionals is extended to the case of a finite union of convex parameter spaces. Upper and lower bounds for the minimax risk can still be described in terms of a modulus of continuity. However in contrast to the theory for convex parameter spaces rate optima ..."
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Cited by 13 (7 self)
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The minimax theory for estimating linear functionals is extended to the case of a finite union of convex parameter spaces. Upper and lower bounds for the minimax risk can still be described in terms of a modulus of continuity. However in contrast to the theory for convex parameter spaces rate optimal procedures are often required to be nonlinear. A construction of such nonlinear procedures is given. The results developed in this paper have important applications to the theory of adaptation.
Rates of convergence and adaption over Besov spaces under pointwise risk
 STATISTICA SINICA
, 2003
"... Function estimation over the Besov spaces under pointwise ℓ r (1 ≤ r< ∞) risks is considered. Minimax rates of convergence are derived using a constrained risk inequality and wavelets. Adaptation under pointwise risks is also considered. Sharp lower bounds on the cost of adaptation are obtained a ..."
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Cited by 12 (1 self)
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Function estimation over the Besov spaces under pointwise ℓ r (1 ≤ r< ∞) risks is considered. Minimax rates of convergence are derived using a constrained risk inequality and wavelets. Adaptation under pointwise risks is also considered. Sharp lower bounds on the cost of adaptation are obtained and are shown to be attainable by a wavelet estimator. The results demonstrate important differences between the minimax properties under pointwise and global risk measures. The minimax rates and adaptation for estimating derivatives under pointwise risks are also presented. A general ℓ rrisk oracle inequality is developed for the proofs of the main results.