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31
Compression via Matroids: A Randomized Polynomial Kernel for Odd Cycle Transversal
"... The Odd Cycle Transversal problem (OCT) asks whether a given graph can be made bipartite by deleting at most k of its vertices. In a breakthrough result Reed, Smith, and Vetta (Operations Research Letters, 2004) gave a O(4 k kmn) time algorithm for it, the first algorithm with polynomial runtime of ..."
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The Odd Cycle Transversal problem (OCT) asks whether a given graph can be made bipartite by deleting at most k of its vertices. In a breakthrough result Reed, Smith, and Vetta (Operations Research Letters, 2004) gave a O(4 k kmn) time algorithm for it, the first algorithm with polynomial runtime of uniform degree for every fixed k. It is known that this implies a polynomialtime compression algorithm that turns OCT instances into equivalent instances of size at most O(4 k), a socalled kernelization. Since then the existence of a polynomial kernel for OCT, i.e., a kernelization with size bounded polynomially in k, has turned into one of the main open questions in the study of kernelization. Despite the impressive progress in the area, including the recent development of lower bound techniques (Bodlaender
Finding small separators in linear time via treewidth reduction
"... We present a method for reducing the treewidth of a graph while preserving all of its minimal s−t separators up to a certain fixed size k. This technique allows us to solve s−t Cut and Multicut problems with various additional restrictions (e.g., the vertices being removed from the graph form an ind ..."
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Cited by 17 (1 self)
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We present a method for reducing the treewidth of a graph while preserving all of its minimal s−t separators up to a certain fixed size k. This technique allows us to solve s−t Cut and Multicut problems with various additional restrictions (e.g., the vertices being removed from the graph form an independent set or induce a connected graph) in linear time for every fixed number k of removed vertices. Our results have applications for problems that are not directly defined by separators, but the known solution methods depend on some variant of separation. For example, we can solve similarly restricted generalizations of Bipartization (delete at most k vertices from G to make it bipartite) in almost linear time for every fixed number k of removed vertices. These results answer a number of open questions in the area of parameterized complexity. Furthermore, our technique turns out to be relevant for (H,C,K)and (H,C,≤K)coloring problems as well, which are cardinality constrained variants of the classical Hcoloring problem. We make progress in the classification of the parameterized complexity of these problems by identifying new cases that can be solved in almost linear time for every fixed cardinality bound.
Multicut is FPT
 In STOC
, 2011
"... Let G = (V,E) be a graph on n vertices and R be a set of pairs of vertices in V called requests. A multicut is a subset F of E such that every request xy of R is separator by F, i.e.every xypath of G intersects F. We show that there exists an O(f(k)nc) algorithm which decides if there exists a mult ..."
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Let G = (V,E) be a graph on n vertices and R be a set of pairs of vertices in V called requests. A multicut is a subset F of E such that every request xy of R is separator by F, i.e.every xypath of G intersects F. We show that there exists an O(f(k)nc) algorithm which decides if there exists a multicut of size at most k. In other words, the MULTICUT problem parameterized by the solution size k is FixedParameter Tractable. 1
FixedParameter Tractability of Directed Multiway Cut Parameterized by the Size of the Cutset
"... Given a directed graph G, a set of k terminals and an integer p, the DIRECTED VERTEX MULTIWAY CUT problem asks if there is a set S of at most p (nonterminal) vertices whose removal disconnects each terminal from all other terminals. DIRECTED EDGE MULTIWAY CUT is the analogous problem where S is a se ..."
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Given a directed graph G, a set of k terminals and an integer p, the DIRECTED VERTEX MULTIWAY CUT problem asks if there is a set S of at most p (nonterminal) vertices whose removal disconnects each terminal from all other terminals. DIRECTED EDGE MULTIWAY CUT is the analogous problem where S is a set of at most p edges. These two problems indeed are known to be equivalent. A natural generalization of the multiway cut is the multicut problem, in which we want to disconnect only a set of k given pairs instead of all pairs. Marx (Theor. Comp. Sci. 2006) showed that in undirected graphs multiway cut is fixedparameter tractable (FPT) parameterized by p. Marx and Razgon (STOC 2011) showed that undirected multicut is FPT and directed multicut is W[1]hard parameterized by p. We complete the picture here by our main result which is that both DIRECTED VERTEX MULTIWAY CUT and DIRECTED EDGE MULTIWAY CUT can be solved in time 22O(p) nO(1) , i.e., FPT parameterized by size p of the cutset of the solution. This answers an open question raised by Marx (Theor. Comp. Sci. 2006) and Marx and Razgon (STOC 2011). It follows from our result that DIRECTED MULTICUT is FPT for the case of k = 2 terminal pairs, which answers another open problem raised in Marx and Razgon (STOC 2011). 1
Clustering with Local Restrictions
"... Abstract. We study a family of graph clustering problems where each cluster has to satisfy a certain local requirement. Formally, let µ be a function on the subsets of vertices of a graph G. In the (µ, p,q)PARTITION problem, the task is to find a partition of the vertices where each cluster C satis ..."
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Abstract. We study a family of graph clustering problems where each cluster has to satisfy a certain local requirement. Formally, let µ be a function on the subsets of vertices of a graph G. In the (µ, p,q)PARTITION problem, the task is to find a partition of the vertices where each cluster C satisfies the requirements that (1) at most q edges leave C and (2) µ(C) ≤ p. Our first result shows that if µ is an arbitrary polynomialtime computable monotone function, then (µ, p, q)PARTITION can be solved in time n O(q) , i.e., it is polynomialtime solvable for every fixed q. We study in detail three concrete functions µ (number of nonedges in the cluster, maximum degree of nonedges in the cluster, number of vertices in the cluster), which correspond to natural clustering problems. For these functions, we show that (µ, p,q)PARTITION can be solved in time 2 O(p) · n O(1) and in randomized time 2 O(q) · n O(1) , i.e., the problem is fixedparameter tractable parameterized by p or by q. 1
Subset feedback vertex set is fixedparameter tractable
, 2011
"... The classical FEEDBACK VERTEX SET problem asks, for a given undirected graph G and an integer k, to find a set of at most k vertices that hits all the cycles in the graph G. FEEDBACK VERTEX SET has attracted a large amount of research in the parameterized setting, and subsequent kernelization and fi ..."
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Cited by 9 (2 self)
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The classical FEEDBACK VERTEX SET problem asks, for a given undirected graph G and an integer k, to find a set of at most k vertices that hits all the cycles in the graph G. FEEDBACK VERTEX SET has attracted a large amount of research in the parameterized setting, and subsequent kernelization and fixedparameter algorithms have been a rich source of ideas in the field. In this paper we consider a more general and difficult version of the problem, named SUBSET FEEDBACK VERTEX SET (SUBSETFVS in short) where an instance comes additionally with a set S ⊆ V of vertices, and we ask for a set of at most k vertices that hits all simple cycles passing through S. Because of its applications in circuit testing and genetic linkage analysis SUBSETFVS was studied from the approximation algorithms perspective by Even et al. [SICOMP’00, SIDMA’00]. The question whether the SUBSETFVS problem is fixedparameter tractable was posed independently by Kawarabayashi and Saurabh in 2009. We answer this question affirmatively. We begin by showing that this problem is fixedparameter tractable when parametrized by S. Next we present an algorithm which reduces the given instance to 2 k n O(1) instances with the size of S bounded by O(k 3), using kernelization techniques such as the 2Expansion Lemma, Menger’s theorem and Gallai’s theorem. These two facts allow us to give a 2 O(k log k) n O(1) time algorithm solving the SUBSET FEEDBACK VERTEX SET problem, proving that it is indeed fixedparameter tractable.
Fixedparameter tractability of multicut in directed acyclic graphs
, 2015
"... The Multicut problem, given a graph G, a set of terminal pairs T = {(si, ti)  1 ≤ i ≤ r}, and an integer p, asks whether one can find a cutset consisting of at most p nonterminal vertices that separates all the terminal pairs, i.e., after removing the cutset, ti is not reachable from si for each ..."
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The Multicut problem, given a graph G, a set of terminal pairs T = {(si, ti)  1 ≤ i ≤ r}, and an integer p, asks whether one can find a cutset consisting of at most p nonterminal vertices that separates all the terminal pairs, i.e., after removing the cutset, ti is not reachable from si for each 1 ≤ i ≤ r. The fixedparameter tractability of Multicut in undirected graphs, parameterized by the size of the cutset only, has been recently proved by Marx and Razgon [SIAM J. Comput., 43 (2014), pp. 355–388] and, independently, by Bousquet, Daligault, and Thomassé [Proceedings of STOC, ACM, 2011, pp. 459–468], after resisting attacks as a longstanding open problem. In this paper we prove that Multicut is fixedparameter tractable on directed acyclic graphs when parameterized both by the size of the cutset and the number of terminal pairs. We complement this result by showing that this is implausible for parameterization by the size of the cutset only, as this version of the problem remains W [1]hard.
Obtaining a bipartite graph by contracting few edges
, 2011
"... We initiate the study of the BIPARTITE CONTRACTION problem from the perspective of parameterized complexity. In this problem we are given a graph G on n vertices and an integer k, and the task is to determine whether we can obtain a bipartite graph from G by a sequence of at most k edge contractions ..."
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We initiate the study of the BIPARTITE CONTRACTION problem from the perspective of parameterized complexity. In this problem we are given a graph G on n vertices and an integer k, and the task is to determine whether we can obtain a bipartite graph from G by a sequence of at most k edge contractions. Our main result is an f (k) n O(1) time algorithm for BIPARTITE CONTRACTION. Despite a strong resemblance between BIPARTITE CONTRACTION and the classical ODD CYCLE TRANSVERSAL (OCT) problem, the methods developed to tackle OCT do not seem to be directly applicable to BIPARTITE CONTRACTION. To obtain our result, we combine several techniques and concepts that are central in parameterized complexity: iterative compression, irrelevant vertex, and important separators. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the irrelevant vertex technique and the concept of important separators are applied in unison. Furthermore, our algorithm may serve as a comprehensible example of the usage of the irrelevant vertex technique.
A GOLDEN RATIO PARAMETERIZED ALGORITHM FOR CLUSTER EDITING
, 2012
"... The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph by at most k edge modifications into a disjoint union of cliques. The problem is NPcomplete, but several parameterized algorithms are known. We present a novel search tree algorithm for the ..."
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The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph by at most k edge modifications into a disjoint union of cliques. The problem is NPcomplete, but several parameterized algorithms are known. We present a novel search tree algorithm for the
Parameterized Tractability of Multiway Cut with Parity Constraints
"... Abstract. In this paper, we study a parity based generalization of the classical MULTIWAY CUT problem. Formally, we study the PARITY MULTIWAY CUT problem, where the input is a graph G, vertex subsets Te and To (T = Te ∪ To) called terminals, a positive integer k and the objective is to test whether ..."
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Abstract. In this paper, we study a parity based generalization of the classical MULTIWAY CUT problem. Formally, we study the PARITY MULTIWAY CUT problem, where the input is a graph G, vertex subsets Te and To (T = Te ∪ To) called terminals, a positive integer k and the objective is to test whether there exists a ksized vertex subset S such that S intersects all odd paths from v ∈ To to T \ {v} and all even paths from v ∈ Te to T \ {v}. When Te = To, this is precisely the classical MULTIWAY CUT problem. If To = ∅ then this is the EVEN MULTIWAY CUT problem and if Te = ∅ then this is the ODD MULTIWAY CUT problem. We remark that even the problem of deciding whether there is a set of at most k vertices that intersects all odd paths between a pair of vertices s and t is NPcomplete. Our primary motivation for studying this problem is the recently initiated parameterized study of parity versions of graphs minors (Kawarabayashi, Reed and Wollan, FOCS 2011) and separation problems similar to MULTIWAY CUT. The area of design of parameterized algorithms for graph separation problems has seen a lot of recent activity, which includes algorithms