Results 1  10
of
573
The interdisciplinary study of coordination
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1994
"... This survey characterizes an emerging research area, sometimes called coordination theory, that focuses on the interdisciplinary study of coordination. Research in this area uses and extends ideas about coordination from disciplines such as computer science, organization theory, operations research, ..."
Abstract

Cited by 773 (21 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This survey characterizes an emerging research area, sometimes called coordination theory, that focuses on the interdisciplinary study of coordination. Research in this area uses and extends ideas about coordination from disciplines such as computer science, organization theory, operations research, economics, linguistics, and psychology. A key insight of the framework presented here is that coordination can be seen as the process of managing dependencies among activities. Further progress, therefore, should be possible by characterizing different kinds of dependencies and identifying the coordination processes that can be used to manage them. A variety of processes are analyzed from this perspective, and commonalities across disciplines are identified. Processes analyzed include those for managing shared resources, producer/consumer relationships, simultaneity constraints, and tank/subtask dependencies. Section 3 summarizes ways of applying a coordination perspective in three different domains: (1) understanding the effects of information technology on human organizations and markets, (2) designing cooperative work tools, and (3) designing distributed and parallel computer systems. In the final section, elements of a research
Knowledge and Common Knowledge in a Distributed Environment
 Journal of the ACM
, 1984
"... : Reasoning about knowledge seems to play a fundamental role in distributed systems. Indeed, such reasoning is a central part of the informal intuitive arguments used in the design of distributed protocols. Communication in a distributed system can be viewed as the act of transforming the system&apo ..."
Abstract

Cited by 577 (55 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
: Reasoning about knowledge seems to play a fundamental role in distributed systems. Indeed, such reasoning is a central part of the informal intuitive arguments used in the design of distributed protocols. Communication in a distributed system can be viewed as the act of transforming the system's state of knowledge. This paper presents a general framework for formalizing and reasoning about knowledge in distributed systems. We argue that states of knowledge of groups of processors are useful concepts for the design and analysis of distributed protocols. In particular, distributed knowledge corresponds to knowledge that is "distributed" among the members of the group, while common knowledge corresponds to a fact being "publicly known". The relationship between common knowledge and a variety of desirable actions in a distributed system is illustrated. Furthermore, it is shown that, formally speaking, in practical systems common knowledge cannot be attained. A number of weaker variants...
The Nash Bargaining Solution in Economic Modeling
 Rand Journal of Economics
, 1986
"... This article establishes the relationship between the static axiomatic theory of bargaining and the sequential strategic approach to bargaining. We consider two strategic models of alternating offers. The models differ in the source of the incentive of the bargaining parties to reach agreement: the ..."
Abstract

Cited by 556 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This article establishes the relationship between the static axiomatic theory of bargaining and the sequential strategic approach to bargaining. We consider two strategic models of alternating offers. The models differ in the source of the incentive of the bargaining parties to reach agreement: the bargainers ' time preference and the risk of breakdown of negotiation. Each of the models has a unique perfect equilibrium. When the motivation to reach agreement is made negligible, in each model the unique perfect equilibrium outcome approaches the Nash bargaining solution, with utilities that reflect the incentive to settle and with the proper disagreement jfoint chosen. The results provide a guide for the application of the Nash bargaining solution in economic modelling. 1.
Rationalizable Strategic Behavior and the Problem of Perfection
 ECONOMETRICA
, 1984
"... ..."
(Show Context)
Global Games: Theory and Applications
 IN “ADVANCES IN ECONOMICS AND ECONOMETRICS, THE EIGHTH WORLD CONGRESS”, DEWATRIPONT, HANSEN AND TURNOVSKY, EDS
, 2000
"... ..."
Epistemic conditions for Nash equilibrium
, 1991
"... According to conventional wisdom, Nash equilibrium in a game “involves” common knowledge of the payoff functions, of the rationality of the players, and of the strategies played. The basis for this wisdom is explored, and it turns out that considerably weaker conditions suffice. First, note that if ..."
Abstract

Cited by 226 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
According to conventional wisdom, Nash equilibrium in a game “involves” common knowledge of the payoff functions, of the rationality of the players, and of the strategies played. The basis for this wisdom is explored, and it turns out that considerably weaker conditions suffice. First, note that if each player is rational and knows his own payoff function, and the strategy choices of the players are mutually known, then these choices form a Nash equilibrium. The other two results treat the mixed strategies of a player not as conscious randomization of that player, but as conjectures of the other players about what he will do. When n = 2, mutual knowledge of the payoff functions, of rationality, and of the conjectures yields Nash equilibrium. When n ≥ 3, mutual knowledge of the payoff functions and of rationality, and common knowledge of the conjectures yield Nash equilibrium when there is a common prior. Examples are provided showing these results to be sharp.
Incentives and Incomplete Information
 Journal of Public Economics, XI
, 1979
"... The problem of incentives for correct revelation in a collective decision model is presented as a game with incomplete information. Two approaches to incomplete information are used, a first where the individual beliefs are not introduced and a second where they are. In the first approach it is re ..."
Abstract

Cited by 189 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The problem of incentives for correct revelation in a collective decision model is presented as a game with incomplete information. Two approaches to incomplete information are used, a first where the individual beliefs are not introduced and a second where they are. In the first approach it is recalled that the mechanisms for which the solution to the incentive problem is in dominant strategies lead in general to a budgetary problem for the central agency. For these mechanisms a uniqueness property is demonstrated. In the second approach it is shown that if a compatibility condition is imposed on the individual beliefs and if a Bayesian solution is given to the incentive problem, then it is possible to avoid the budgetary problem. 1
Logarithmic Market Scoring Rules for Modular Combinatorial Information Aggregation
 Journal of Prediction Markets
, 2002
"... In practice, scoring rules elicit good probability estimates from individuals, while betting markets elicit good consensus estimates from groups. Market scoring rules combine these features, eliciting estimates from individuals or groups, with groups costing no more than individuals. ..."
Abstract

Cited by 111 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
In practice, scoring rules elicit good probability estimates from individuals, while betting markets elicit good consensus estimates from groups. Market scoring rules combine these features, eliciting estimates from individuals or groups, with groups costing no more than individuals.
The Bayesian Foundations of Solution Concepts of Games,” Working
 University of Chicago
, 1986
"... We transform a noncooperative game into a Bayesian decision problem for each player where the uncertainty faced by a player is the strategy choices of the other players, the priors of other players on the choice of other players, the priors over priors, and so on. We provide a complete characterizat ..."
Abstract

Cited by 103 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
We transform a noncooperative game into a Bayesian decision problem for each player where the uncertainty faced by a player is the strategy choices of the other players, the priors of other players on the choice of other players, the priors over priors, and so on. We provide a complete characterization between the extent of knowledge about the rationality of players and their ability to successively eliminate strategies which are not best responses. This paper therefore provides the informational foundations of iteratively undominated strategies and rationalizable strategic behavior (B.D. Bernheim, Economefrica 52 (1984) 10071028; D. Pearce, Economefrica 52 (1984), 10291050). Sufficient conditions are also found for Nash equilibrium behavior and a result akin to R. J. Aumann (Econometrica 55 (1987) l18) on correlated equilibria, is derived with different hypotheses. Journal of