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88
Basic Analytic Combinatorics of Directed Lattice Paths
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2001
"... This paper develops a unified enumerative and asymptotic theory of directed 2dimensional lattice paths in halfplanes and quarterplanes. The lattice paths are speci ed by a finite set of rules that are both time and space homogeneous, and have a privileged direction of increase. (They are then ess ..."
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Cited by 78 (13 self)
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This paper develops a unified enumerative and asymptotic theory of directed 2dimensional lattice paths in halfplanes and quarterplanes. The lattice paths are speci ed by a finite set of rules that are both time and space homogeneous, and have a privileged direction of increase. (They are then essentially 1dimensional objects.) The theory relies on a specific "kernel method" that provides an important decomposition of the algebraic generating functions involved, as well as on a generic study of singularities of an associated algebraic curve. Consequences are precise computable estimates for the number of lattice paths of a given length under various constraints (bridges, excursions, meanders) as well as a characterization of the limit laws associated to several basic parameters of paths.
Four Classes of PatternAvoiding Permutations under one Roof: Generating Trees with Two Labels
, 2003
"... Many families of patternavoiding permutations can be described by a generating tree in which each node carries one integer label, computed recursively via a rewriting rule. A typical example is that of 123avoiding permutations. The rewriting rule automatically gives a functional equation satis ..."
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Cited by 44 (6 self)
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Many families of patternavoiding permutations can be described by a generating tree in which each node carries one integer label, computed recursively via a rewriting rule. A typical example is that of 123avoiding permutations. The rewriting rule automatically gives a functional equation satis ed by the bivariate generating function that counts the permutations by their length and the label of the corresponding node of the tree. These equations are now well understood, and their solutions are always algebraic series.
Increasing and decreasing subsequences and their variants
 PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY
, 2006
"... We survey the theory of increasing and decreasing subsequences of permutations. Enumeration problems in this area are closely related to the RSK algorithm. The asymptotic behavior of the expected value of the length is(w) of the longest increasing subsequence of a permutation w of 1, 2,...,n was ob ..."
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Cited by 33 (2 self)
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We survey the theory of increasing and decreasing subsequences of permutations. Enumeration problems in this area are closely related to the RSK algorithm. The asymptotic behavior of the expected value of the length is(w) of the longest increasing subsequence of a permutation w of 1, 2,...,n was obtained by VershikKerov and (almost) by LoganShepp. The entire limiting distribution of is(w) was then determined by Baik, Deift, and Johansson. These techniques can be applied to other classes of permutations, such as involutions, and are related to the distribution of eigenvalues of elements of the classical groups. A number of generalizations and variations of increasing/decreasing subsequences are discussed, including the theory of pattern avoidance, unimodal and alternating subsequences, and crossings and nestings of matchings and set partitions.
Walks in the quarter plane: Kreweras’ algebraic model
, 2004
"... We consider planar lattice walks that start from (0, 0), remain in the first quadrant i, j ≥ 0, and are made of three types of steps: NorthEast, West and South. These walks are known to have remarkable enumerative and probabilistic properties: – they are counted by nice numbers (Kreweras 1965), – t ..."
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Cited by 32 (10 self)
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We consider planar lattice walks that start from (0, 0), remain in the first quadrant i, j ≥ 0, and are made of three types of steps: NorthEast, West and South. These walks are known to have remarkable enumerative and probabilistic properties: – they are counted by nice numbers (Kreweras 1965), – the generating function of these numbers is algebraic (Gessel 1986), – the stationary distribution of the corresponding Markov chain in the quadrant has an algebraic probability generating function (Flatto and Hahn 1984). These results are not well understood, and have been established via complicated proofs. Here we give a uniform derivation of all of them, which is more elementary that those previously published. We then go further by computing the full law of the Markov chain. This helps to delimit the border of algebraicity: the associated probability generating function is no longer algebraic, unless a diagonal symmetry holds. Our proofs are based on the solution of certain functional equations, which are very simple to establish. Finding purely combinatorial proofs remains an open problem.
Polynomial equations with one catalytic variable, algebraic series and map enumeration
 J. COMB. THEORY, SERIES B96
, 2005
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Permutations avoiding an increasing number of lengthincreasing forbidden subsequences
 Discrete Math. Theor. Comput. Sci
, 2000
"... A permutation is said to ¡ be –avoiding if it does not contain any subsequence having all the same pairwise comparisons ¡ as. This paper concerns the characterization and enumeration of permutations which avoid a set ¢¤ £ of subsequences increasing both in number and in length at the same time. Le ..."
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Cited by 28 (2 self)
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A permutation is said to ¡ be –avoiding if it does not contain any subsequence having all the same pairwise comparisons ¡ as. This paper concerns the characterization and enumeration of permutations which avoid a set ¢¤ £ of subsequences increasing both in number and in length at the same time. Let ¢ £ be the set of subsequences of the “¥§¦©¨�������¦©¨����� � form ¥ ”, being any permutation ��������������¨� � on. ¨��� � For the only subsequence in ¢�� ���� � is and ���� � the –avoiding permutations are enumerated by the Catalan numbers; ¨��� � for the subsequences in ¢� � are, ������ � and the (������������������ � –avoiding permutations are enumerated by the Schröder numbers; for each other value ¨ of greater � than the subsequences in ¢ £ ¨� � are and their length ¦©¨����� � is; the permutations avoiding ¨�� these subsequences are enumerated by a number ������ � �� � � sequence such �������������� � that �� � , being � the –th Catalan number. For ¨ each we determine the generating function of permutations avoiding the subsequences in ¢� £ , according to the length, to the number of left minima and of noninversions.
The insertion encoding of permutations
, 2005
"... We introduce the insertion encoding, an encoding of finite permutations. Classes of permutations whose insertion encodings form a regular language are characterized. Some necessary conditions are provided for a class of permutations to have insertion encodings that form a context free language. Appl ..."
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Cited by 24 (3 self)
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We introduce the insertion encoding, an encoding of finite permutations. Classes of permutations whose insertion encodings form a regular language are characterized. Some necessary conditions are provided for a class of permutations to have insertion encodings that form a context free language. Applications of the insertion encoding to the evaluation of generating functions for classes of permutations, construction of polynomial time algorithms for enumerating such classes, and the illustration of bijective equivalence between classes are demonstrated.
ON PARTITIONS AVOIDING 3CROSSINGS
 SÉMINAIRE LOTHARINGIEN DE COMBINATOIRE 54 (2006), ARTICLE B54E
, 2006
"... A partition on [n] has a crossing if there exists i1 < i2 < j1 < j2 such that i1 and j1 are in the same block, i2 and j2 are in the same block, but i1 and i2 are not in the same block. Recently, Chen et al. refined this classical notion by introducing kcrossings, for any integer k. In thi ..."
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Cited by 16 (5 self)
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A partition on [n] has a crossing if there exists i1 < i2 < j1 < j2 such that i1 and j1 are in the same block, i2 and j2 are in the same block, but i1 and i2 are not in the same block. Recently, Chen et al. refined this classical notion by introducing kcrossings, for any integer k. In this new terminology, a classical crossing is a 2crossing. The number of partitions of [n] avoiding 2crossings is wellknown to be the nth Catalan number Cn = � � 2n n /(n + 1). This raises the question of counting knoncrossing partitions for k ≥ 3. We prove that the sequence counting 3noncrossing partitions is Precursive, that is, satisfies a linear recurrence relation with polynomial coefficients. We give explicitly such a recursion. However, we conjecture that knoncrossing partitions are not Precursive, for k ≥ 4. We obtain similar results for partitions avoiding enhanced 3crossings.