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265
An Ensemble Adjustment Kalman Filter for Data Assimilation
, 2001
"... A theory for estimating the probability distribution of the state of a model given a set of observations exists. This nonlinear ..."
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Cited by 283 (12 self)
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A theory for estimating the probability distribution of the state of a model given a set of observations exists. This nonlinear
Ensemble Data Assimilation without Perturbed Observations
 MON. WEA. REV
, 2002
"... The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a data assimilation scheme based on the traditional Kalman filter update equation. An ensemble of forecasts are used to estimate the backgrounderror covariances needed to compute the Kalman gain. It is known that if the same observations and the same gain are ..."
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Cited by 278 (21 self)
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The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a data assimilation scheme based on the traditional Kalman filter update equation. An ensemble of forecasts are used to estimate the backgrounderror covariances needed to compute the Kalman gain. It is known that if the same observations and the same gain are used to update each member of the ensemble, the ensemble will systematically underestimate analysiserror covariances. This will cause a degradation of subsequent analyses and may lead to filter divergence. For large ensembles, it is known that this problem can be alleviated by treating the observations as random variables, adding random perturbations to them with the correct statistics. Two important
Ensemble Kalman Filter Assimilation of Doppler Radar Data with a Compressible Nonhydrostatic Model: OSS Experiments
, 2004
"... A Doppler radar data assimilation system is developed based on ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) method and tested with simulated radar data from a supercell storm. As a first implementation, we assume the forward models are perfect and radar data are sampled at the analysis grid points. A general pur ..."
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Cited by 127 (78 self)
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A Doppler radar data assimilation system is developed based on ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) method and tested with simulated radar data from a supercell storm. As a first implementation, we assume the forward models are perfect and radar data are sampled at the analysis grid points. A general purpose nonhydrostatic compressible model is used with the inclusion of complex multiclass ice microphysics. New aspects compared to previous studies include the demonstration of the ability of EnKF method in retrieving multiple microphysical species associated with a multiclass ice microphysics scheme, and in accurately retrieving the wind and thermodynamic variables. Also new are the inclusion of reflectivity observations and the determination of the relative role of radial velocity and reflectivity data as well as their spatial coverage in recovering the full flow and cloud fields. In general, the system is able to reestablish the model storm extremely well after a number of assimilation cycles, and best results are obtained when both radial velocity and reflectivity data, including reflectivity information outside precipitation regions, are used. Significant positive impact of the reflectivity assimilation
Estimation of highdimensional prior and posterior covariance matrices in Kalman filter variants
 Journal of Multivariate Analysis
, 2007
"... This work studies the effect of using Monte Carlo based methods to estimate highdimensional systems. Recent focus in the geosciences has been on representing the atmospheric state using a probability density function, and, for extremely highdimensional systems, various sample based Kalman filter t ..."
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Cited by 84 (4 self)
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This work studies the effect of using Monte Carlo based methods to estimate highdimensional systems. Recent focus in the geosciences has been on representing the atmospheric state using a probability density function, and, for extremely highdimensional systems, various sample based Kalman filter techniques have been developed to address the problem of realtime assimilation of system information and observations. As the employed sample sizes are typically several orders of magnitude smaller than the system dimension, such sampling techniques inevitably induces considerable variability into the state estimate, primarily through prior and posterior sample covariance matrices. In this article we quantify this variability with mean squared error measures for two MonteCarlo based Kalman filter variants, the ensemble Kalman filter and the squareroot filter. Under weak assumptions, we derive exact expressions of the error measures. In other cases, we rely on matrix expansions and provide approximations. We show that covarianceshrinking (tapering) based on the Schur product of the prior sample covariance matrix and a positive definite function is a simple, computationally feasible, and very effective technique to reduce sample variability and to address rankdeficient sample covariances. We propose practical rules for obtaining optimally tapered sample covariance matrices. The theoretical results are verified and illustrated with extensive simulations.
Ensemble data assimilation with the ncep global forecast system
, 2007
"... Realdata experiments with an ensemble data assimilation system using the NCEP Global Forecast System model were performed and compared with the NCEP Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS). All observations in the operational data stream were assimilated for the period 1 January–10 February 2004, ex ..."
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Cited by 51 (7 self)
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Realdata experiments with an ensemble data assimilation system using the NCEP Global Forecast System model were performed and compared with the NCEP Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS). All observations in the operational data stream were assimilated for the period 1 January–10 February 2004, except satellite radiances. Because of computational resource limitations, the comparison was done at lower resolution (triangular truncation at wavenumber 62 with 28 levels) than the GDAS realtime NCEP operational runs (triangular truncation at wavenumber 254 with 64 levels). The ensemble data assimilation system outperformed the reducedresolution version of the NCEP threedimensional variational data assimilation system (3DVAR), with the biggest improvement in datasparse regions. Ensemble data assimilation analyses yielded a 24h improvement in forecast skill in the Southern Hemisphere extratropics relative to the NCEP 3DVAR system (the 48h forecast from the ensemble data assimilation system was as accurate as the 24h forecast from the 3DVAR system). Improvements in the datarich Northern Hemisphere, while still statistically significant, were more modest. It remains to be seen whether the improvements seen in the Southern Hemisphere will be retained when satellite radiances are assimilated. Three different parameterizations of background errors unaccounted for in the data assimilation system (including
Assessing the effects of data selection with the DAO Physicalspace Statistical Analysis System
 Mon. Wea. Rev
, 1998
"... Conventional optimal interpolation (OI) analysis systems solve the standard statistical analysis equations approximately, by invoking a local approximation and a data selection procedure. Although solution of the analysis equations is essentially exact in the recent generation of global spectral var ..."
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Cited by 49 (9 self)
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Conventional optimal interpolation (OI) analysis systems solve the standard statistical analysis equations approximately, by invoking a local approximation and a data selection procedure. Although solution of the analysis equations is essentially exact in the recent generation of global spectral variational analysis systems, these new systems also include substantial changes in error covariance modeling, making it difficult to discern whether improvements in analysis and forecast quality are due to exact, global solution of the analysis equations, or to changes in error covariance modeling. The formulation and implementation of a new type of global analysis system at the Data Assimilation Office, termed the Physicalspace Statistical Analysis System (PSAS), is described in this article. Since this system operates directly in physical space, it is capable of employing error covariance models identical to those of the predecessor OI system, as well as more advanced models. To focus strictly on the effect of global versus local solution of the analysis equations, a comparison between PSAS and OI analyses is carried out with both systems using identical error covariance models and identical data. Spectral decomposition of the analysis increments reveals that, relative to the PSAS increments, the OI increments have too little power at large horizontal scales and excessive power at small horizontal scales. The OI increments also display an unrealistically large ratio of divergence to vorticity. Dynamical imbalances in the OIanalyzed state can therefore be attributed in part to the approximate local method of solution, and are not entirely due to the simple geostrophic constraint built into the forecast error covariance model. Rootmeansquare observation minus 6h forecast errors in the zonal wind component are substantially smaller for the PSAS system than for the OI system. 1.
A comparison between the 4DVAR and the ensemble Kalman filter techniques for radar data assimilation
 IN REVIEW
, 2005
"... A fourdimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) algorithm is compared to an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for the assimilation of radar data at the convective scale. Using a cloudresolving model, simulated, imperfect radar observations of a supercell storm are assimilated under the assump ..."
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Cited by 48 (4 self)
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A fourdimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) algorithm is compared to an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for the assimilation of radar data at the convective scale. Using a cloudresolving model, simulated, imperfect radar observations of a supercell storm are assimilated under the assumption of a perfect forecast model. Overall, both assimilation schemes perform well and are able to recover the supercell with comparable accuracy, given radialvelocity and reflectivity observations where rain was present. 4DVAR produces generally better analyses than the EnKF given observations limited to a period of 10 min (or three volume scans), particularly for the wind components. In contrast, the EnKF typically produces better analyses than 4DVAR after several assimilation cycles, especially for model variables not functionally related to the observations. The advantages of the EnKF in later cycles arise at least in part from the fact that the 4DVAR scheme implemented here does not use a forecast from a previous cycle as background or evolve its error covariance. Possible reasons for the initial advantage of 4DVAR are deficiencies in the initial ensemble used by the EnKF, the temporal smoothness constraint used in 4DVAR, and nonlinearities in the evolution of forecast errors over the assimilation window.
Toward a nonlinear ensemble filter for highdimensional systems
 J. Geophysical ResearchAtmospheres
, 2003
"... [1] Many geophysical problems are characterized by highdimensional, nonlinear systems and pose difficult challenges for realtime data assimilation (updating) and forecasting. The present work builds on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnsKF), with the goal of producing ensemble filtering techniques app ..."
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Cited by 47 (6 self)
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[1] Many geophysical problems are characterized by highdimensional, nonlinear systems and pose difficult challenges for realtime data assimilation (updating) and forecasting. The present work builds on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnsKF), with the goal of producing ensemble filtering techniques applicable to nonGaussian densities and highdimensional systems. Three filtering algorithms, based on representing the prior density as a Gaussian mixture, are presented. The first, referred to as a mixture ensemble Kalman filter (XEnsF), models local covariance structures adaptively using nearest neighbors. The XEnsF is effective in a threedimensional system, but the required ensemble grows rapidly with the dimension and, even in a 40dimensional system, we find the XEnsF to be unstable and inferior to the EnsKF for all computationally feasible ensemble sizes. A second algorithm, the locallocal ensemble filter (LLEnsF), combines localizations in physical as well as phase space, allowing the update step in highdimensional systems to be decomposed into a sequence of lowerdimensional updates tractable by the XEnsF. Given the same prior forecasts in a 40dimensional system, the LLEnsF update produces more accurate state estimates than the EnsKF if the forecast distributions are sufficiently
Maximumlikelihood estimation of forecast and observation error covariance parameters. Part I: Methodology
, 1998
"... The maximumlikelihood method for estimating observation and forecast error covariance parameters is described. The method is presented in general terms but with particular emphasis on practical aspects of implementation. Issues such as bias estimation and correction, parameter identifiability, esti ..."
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Cited by 46 (6 self)
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The maximumlikelihood method for estimating observation and forecast error covariance parameters is described. The method is presented in general terms but with particular emphasis on practical aspects of implementation. Issues such as bias estimation and correction, parameter identifiability, estimation accuracy, and robustness of the method, are discussed in detail. The relationship between the maximumlikelihood method and Generalized CrossValidation is briefly addressed. The method can be regarded as a generalization of the traditional procedure for estimating covariance parameters from station data. It does not involve any restrictions on the covariance models and can be used with data from moving observers, provided the parameters to be estimated are identifiable. Any available a priori information about the observation and forecast error distributions can be incorporated into the estimation procedure. Estimates of parameter accuracy due to sampling error are obtained as a byp...
2006a: Tests of an ensemble Kalman filter for mesoscale and regionalscale data assimilation. Part I: Perfect model experiments
 Mon. Wea. Rev
"... In Part I of this twopart work, the feasibility of using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for mesoscale and regionalscale data assimilation through various observing system simulation experiments was demonstrated assuming a perfect forecast model for a winter snowstorm event that occurred on 24–2 ..."
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Cited by 42 (7 self)
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In Part I of this twopart work, the feasibility of using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for mesoscale and regionalscale data assimilation through various observing system simulation experiments was demonstrated assuming a perfect forecast model for a winter snowstorm event that occurred on 24–26 January 2000. The current study seeks to explore the performance of the EnKF for the same event in the presence of significant model errors due to physical parameterizations by assimilating synthetic sounding and surface observations with typical temporal and spatial resolutions. The EnKF performance with imperfect models is also examined for a warmseason mesoscale convective vortex (MCV) event that occurred on 10–13 June 2003. The significance of model error in both warm and coldseason events is demonstrated when the use of different cumulus parameterization schemes within different ensembles results in significantly different forecasts in terms of both ensemble mean and spread. Nevertheless, the EnKF performed reasonably well in most experiments with the imperfect model assumption (though its performance can sometimes be significantly degraded). As in Part I, where the perfect model assumption was utilized, most analysis error reduction comes from larger scales. Results show that using a combination of different physical parameterization schemes in the ensemble forecast can significantly improve filter performance. A multischeme