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635
Suffix arrays: A new method for online string searches
, 1991
"... A new and conceptually simple data structure, called a suffix array, for online string searches is introduced in this paper. Constructing and querying suffix arrays is reduced to a sort and search paradigm that employs novel algorithms. The main advantage of suffix arrays over suffix trees is that ..."
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Cited by 835 (0 self)
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A new and conceptually simple data structure, called a suffix array, for online string searches is introduced in this paper. Constructing and querying suffix arrays is reduced to a sort and search paradigm that employs novel algorithms. The main advantage of suffix arrays over suffix trees is that, in practice, they use three to five times less space. From a complexity standpoint, suffix arrays permit online string searches of the type, "Is W a substring of A?" to be answered in time O(P + log N), where P is the length of W and N is the length of A, which is competitive with (and in some cases slightly better than) suffix trees. The only drawback is that in those instances where the underlying alphabet is finite and small, suffix trees can be constructed in O(N) time in the worst case, versus O(N log N) time for suffix arrays. However, we give an augmented algorithm that, regardless of the alphabet size, constructs suffix arrays in O(N) expected time, albeit with lesser space efficiency. We believe that suffix arrays will prove to be better in practice than suffix trees for many applications.
A blocksorting lossless data compression algorithm
, 1994
"... We describe a blocksorting, lossless data compression algorithm, and our implementation of that algorithm. We compare the performance of our implementation with widely available data compressors running on the same hardware. The algorithm works by applying a reversible transformation to a block o ..."
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Cited by 809 (5 self)
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We describe a blocksorting, lossless data compression algorithm, and our implementation of that algorithm. We compare the performance of our implementation with widely available data compressors running on the same hardware. The algorithm works by applying a reversible transformation to a block of input text. The transformation does not itself compress the data, but reorders it to make it easy to compress with simple algorithms such as movetofront coding. Our algorithm achieves speed comparable to algorithms based on the techniques of Lempel and Ziv, but obtains compression close to the best statistical modelling techniques. The size of the input block must be large (a few kilobytes) to achieve good compression.
A Guided Tour to Approximate String Matching
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 1999
"... We survey the current techniques to cope with the problem of string matching allowing errors. This is becoming a more and more relevant issue for many fast growing areas such as information retrieval and computational biology. We focus on online searching and mostly on edit distance, explaining t ..."
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Cited by 598 (36 self)
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We survey the current techniques to cope with the problem of string matching allowing errors. This is becoming a more and more relevant issue for many fast growing areas such as information retrieval and computational biology. We focus on online searching and mostly on edit distance, explaining the problem and its relevance, its statistical behavior, its history and current developments, and the central ideas of the algorithms and their complexities. We present a number of experiments to compare the performance of the different algorithms and show which are the best choices according to each case. We conclude with some future work directions and open problems.
OnLine Construction of Suffix Trees
, 1995
"... An online algorithm is presented for constructing the suffix tree for a given string in time linear in the length of the string. The new algorithm has the desirable property of processing the string symbol by symbol from left to right. It has always the suffix tree for the scanned part of the strin ..."
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Cited by 437 (2 self)
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An online algorithm is presented for constructing the suffix tree for a given string in time linear in the length of the string. The new algorithm has the desirable property of processing the string symbol by symbol from left to right. It has always the suffix tree for the scanned part of the string ready. The method is developed as a lineartime version of a very simple algorithm for (quadratic size) suffix tries. Regardless of its quadratic worstcase this latter algorithm can be a good practical method when the string is not too long. Another variation of this method is shown to give in a natural way the wellknown algorithms for constructing suffix automata (DAWGs).
Opportunistic Data Structures with Applications
, 2000
"... In this paper we address the issue of compressing and indexing data. We devise a data structure whose space occupancy is a function of the entropy of the underlying data set. We call the data structure opportunistic since its space occupancy is decreased when the input is compressible and this space ..."
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Cited by 296 (11 self)
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In this paper we address the issue of compressing and indexing data. We devise a data structure whose space occupancy is a function of the entropy of the underlying data set. We call the data structure opportunistic since its space occupancy is decreased when the input is compressible and this space reduction is achieved at no significant slowdown in the query performance. More precisely, its space occupancy is optimal in an informationcontent sense because a text T [1, u] is stored using O(H k (T )) + o(1) bits per input symbol in the worst case, where H k (T ) is the kth order empirical entropy of T (the bound holds for any fixed k). Given an arbitrary string P [1; p], the opportunistic data structure allows to search for the occ occurrences of P in T in O(p + occ log u) time (for any fixed > 0). If data are uncompressible we achieve the best space bound currently known [12]; on compressible data our solution improves the succinct suffix array of [12] and the classical suffix tree and suffix array data structures either in space or in query time or both.
Highorder entropycompressed text indexes
, 2003
"... We present a novel implementation of compressed suffix arrays exhibiting new tradeoffs between search time and space occupancy for a given text (or sequence) of n symbols over an alphabet Σ, where each symbol is encoded by lg Σ  bits. We show that compressed suffix arrays use just nHh + O(n lg lg ..."
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Cited by 267 (22 self)
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We present a novel implementation of compressed suffix arrays exhibiting new tradeoffs between search time and space occupancy for a given text (or sequence) of n symbols over an alphabet Σ, where each symbol is encoded by lg Σ  bits. We show that compressed suffix arrays use just nHh + O(n lg lg n / lg Σ  n) bits, while retaining full text indexing functionalities, such as searching any pattern sequence of length m in O(m lg Σ  + polylog(n)) time. The term Hh ≤ lg Σ  denotes the hthorder empirical entropy of the text, which means that our index is nearly optimal in space apart from lowerorder terms, achieving asymptotically the empirical entropy of the text (with a multiplicative constant 1). If the text is highly compressible so that Hh = o(1) and the alphabet size is small, we obtain a text index with o(m) search time that requires only o(n) bits. Further results and tradeoffs are reported in the paper. 1
Compressed fulltext indexes
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2007
"... Fulltext indexes provide fast substring search over large text collections. A serious problem of these indexes has traditionally been their space consumption. A recent trend is to develop indexes that exploit the compressibility of the text, so that their size is a function of the compressed text l ..."
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Cited by 263 (94 self)
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Fulltext indexes provide fast substring search over large text collections. A serious problem of these indexes has traditionally been their space consumption. A recent trend is to develop indexes that exploit the compressibility of the text, so that their size is a function of the compressed text length. This concept has evolved into selfindexes, which in addition contain enough information to reproduce any text portion, so they replace the text. The exciting possibility of an index that takes space close to that of the compressed text, replaces it, and in addition provides fast search over it, has triggered a wealth of activity and produced surprising results in a very short time, and radically changed the status of this area in less than five years. The most successful indexes nowadays are able to obtain almost optimal space and search time simultaneously. In this paper we present the main concepts underlying selfindexes. We explain the relationship between text entropy and regularities that show up in index structures and permit compressing them. Then we cover the most relevant selfindexes up to date, focusing on the essential aspects on how they exploit the text compressibility and how they solve efficiently various search problems. We aim at giving the theoretical background to understand and follow the developments in this area.
Simple linear work suffix array construction
, 2003
"... Abstract. Suffix trees and suffix arrays are widely used and largely interchangeable index structures on strings and sequences. Practitioners prefer suffix arrays due to their simplicity and space efficiency while theoreticians use suffix trees due to lineartime construction algorithms and more exp ..."
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Cited by 215 (8 self)
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Abstract. Suffix trees and suffix arrays are widely used and largely interchangeable index structures on strings and sequences. Practitioners prefer suffix arrays due to their simplicity and space efficiency while theoreticians use suffix trees due to lineartime construction algorithms and more explicit structure. We narrow this gap between theory and practice with a simple lineartime construction algorithm for suffix arrays. The simplicity is demonstrated with a C++ implementation of 50 effective lines of code. The algorithm is called DC3, which stems from the central underlying concept of difference cover. This view leads to a generalized algorithm, DC, that allows a spaceefficient implementation and, moreover, supports the choice of a space–time tradeoff. For any v ∈ [1, √ n], it runs in O(vn) time using O(n / √ v) space in addition to the input string and the suffix array. We also present variants of the algorithm for several parallel and hierarchical memory models of computation. The algorithms for BSP and EREWPRAM models are asymptotically faster than all previous suffix tree or array construction algorithms.
An O(ND) Difference Algorithm and Its Variations
 Algorithmica
, 1986
"... The problems of finding a longest common subsequence of two sequences A and B and a shortest edit script for transforming A into B have long been known to be dual problems. In this paper, they are shown to be equivalent to finding a shortest/longest path in an edit graph. Using this perspective, a s ..."
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Cited by 212 (4 self)
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The problems of finding a longest common subsequence of two sequences A and B and a shortest edit script for transforming A into B have long been known to be dual problems. In this paper, they are shown to be equivalent to finding a shortest/longest path in an edit graph. Using this perspective, a simple O(ND) time and space algorithm is developed where N is the sum of the lengths of A and B and D is the size of the minimum edit script for A and B. The algorithm performs well when differences are small (sequences are similar) and is consequently fast in typical applications. The algorithm is shown to have O(N +D expectedtime performance under a basic stochastic model. A refinement of the algorithm requires only O(N) space, and the use of suffix trees leads to an O(NlgN +D ) time variation.
Approaches to the Automatic Discovery of Patterns in Biosequences
, 1995
"... This paper is a survey of approaches and algorithms used for the automatic discovery of patterns in biosequences. Patterns with the expressive power in the class of regular languages are considered, and a classification of pattern languages in this class is developed, covering those patterns which a ..."
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Cited by 174 (21 self)
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This paper is a survey of approaches and algorithms used for the automatic discovery of patterns in biosequences. Patterns with the expressive power in the class of regular languages are considered, and a classification of pattern languages in this class is developed, covering those patterns which are the most frequently used in molecular bioinformatics. A formulation is given of the problem of the automatic discovery of such patterns from a set of sequences, and an analysis presented of the ways in which an assessment can be made of the significance and usefulness of the discovered patterns. It is shown that this problem is related to problems studied in the field of machine learning. The largest part of this paper comprises a review of a number of existing methods developed to solve this problem and how these relate to each other, focusing on the algorithms underlying the approaches. A comparison is given of the algorithms, and examples are given of patterns that have been discovered...