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Distributed Optimization and Statistical Learning via the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers
, 2010
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Hyperspectral unmixing overview: Geometrical, statistical, and sparse regressionbased approaches
 IEEE J. SEL. TOPICS APPL. EARTH OBSERV. REMOTE SENS
, 2012
"... Imaging spectrometers measure electromagnetic energy scattered in their instantaneous field view in hundreds or thousands of spectral channels with higher spectral resolution than multispectral cameras. Imaging spectrometers are therefore often referred to as hyperspectral cameras (HSCs). Higher sp ..."
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Cited by 103 (34 self)
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Imaging spectrometers measure electromagnetic energy scattered in their instantaneous field view in hundreds or thousands of spectral channels with higher spectral resolution than multispectral cameras. Imaging spectrometers are therefore often referred to as hyperspectral cameras (HSCs). Higher spectral resolution enables material identification via spectroscopic analysis, which facilitates countless applications that require identifying materials in scenarios unsuitable for classical spectroscopic analysis. Due to low spatial resolution of HSCs, microscopic material mixing, and multiple scattering, spectra measured by HSCs are mixtures of spectra of materials in a scene. Thus, accurate estimation requires unmixing. Pixels are assumed to be mixtures of a few materials, called endmembers. Unmixing involves estimating all or some of: the number of endmembers, their spectral signatures, and their abundances at each pixel. Unmixing is a challenging, illposed
Sparse unmixing of hyperspectral data
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING
, 2011
"... Linear spectral unmixing is a popular tool in remotely sensed hyperspectral data interpretation. It aims at estimating the fractional abundances of pure spectral signatures (also called as endmembers) in each mixed pixel collected by an imaging spectrometer. In many situations, the identification o ..."
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Cited by 51 (15 self)
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Linear spectral unmixing is a popular tool in remotely sensed hyperspectral data interpretation. It aims at estimating the fractional abundances of pure spectral signatures (also called as endmembers) in each mixed pixel collected by an imaging spectrometer. In many situations, the identification of the endmember signatures in the original data set may be challenging due to insufficient spatial resolution, mixtures happening at different scales, and unavailability of completely pure spectral signatures in the scene. However, the unmixing problem can also be approached in semisupervised fashion, i.e., by assuming that the observed image signatures can be expressed in the form of linear combinations of a number of pure spectral signatures known in advance (e.g., spectra collected on the ground by a field spectroradiometer). Unmixing then amounts to finding the optimal subset of signatures in a (potentially very large) spectral library that can best model
Learning sparse codes for hyperspectral imagery
 IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
, 2011
"... The spectral features in hyperspectral imagery (HSI) contain significant structure that, if properly characterized could enable more efficient data acquisition and improved data analysis. Because most pixels contain reflectances of just a few materials, we propose that a sparse coding model is well ..."
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Cited by 19 (2 self)
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The spectral features in hyperspectral imagery (HSI) contain significant structure that, if properly characterized could enable more efficient data acquisition and improved data analysis. Because most pixels contain reflectances of just a few materials, we propose that a sparse coding model is wellmatched to HSI data. Sparsity models consider each pixel as a combination of just a few elements from a larger dictionary, and this approach has proven effective in a wide range of applications. Furthermore, previous work has shown that optimal sparse coding dictionaries can be learned from a dataset with no other a priori information (in contrast to many HSI “endmember ” discovery algorithms that assume the presence of pure spectra or side information). We modified an existing unsupervised learning approach and applied it to HSI data (with significant ground truth labeling) to learn an optimal sparse coding dictionary. Using this learned dictionary, we demonstrate three main findings: i) the sparse coding model learns spectral signatures of materials in the scene and locally approximates nonlinear manifolds for individual materials, ii) this learned dictionary can be used to infer HSIresolution data with very high accuracy from simulated imagery collected at multispectrallevel resolution, and iii) this learned dictionary improves the performance of a supervised classification algorithm, both in terms of the classifier complexity and generalization from very small training sets.
Total Variation Spatial Regularization for Sparse Hyperspectral Unmixing
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING
, 2012
"... Spectral unmixing aims at estimating the fractional abundances of pure spectral signatures (also called endmembers) in each mixed pixel collected by a remote sensing hyperspectral imaging instrument. In recent work, the linear spectral unmixing problem has been approached in semisupervised fashion a ..."
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Cited by 19 (5 self)
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Spectral unmixing aims at estimating the fractional abundances of pure spectral signatures (also called endmembers) in each mixed pixel collected by a remote sensing hyperspectral imaging instrument. In recent work, the linear spectral unmixing problem has been approached in semisupervised fashion as a sparse regression one, under the assumption that the observed image signatures can be expressed as linear combinations of pure spectra, known aprioriand available in a library. It happens, however, that sparse unmixing focuses on analyzing the hyperspectral data without incorporating spatial information. In this paper, we include the total variation (TV) regularization to the classical sparse regression formulation, thus exploiting the spatial– contextual information present in the hyperspectral images and developing a new algorithm called sparse unmixing via variable splitting augmented Lagrangian and TV. Our experimental results, conducted with both simulated and real hyperspectral data sets, indicate the potential of including spatial information (through the TV term) on sparse unmixing formulations for improved characterization of mixed pixels in hyperspectral imagery.
Hyperspectral Unmixing: Geometrical, Statistical, and Sparse RegressionBased Approaches
, 2010
"... Hyperspectral instruments acquire electromagnetic energy scattered within their ground instantaneous field view in hundreds of spectral channels with high spectral resolution. Very often, however, owing to low spatial resolution of the scanner or to the presence of intimate mixtures (mixing of the m ..."
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Cited by 15 (4 self)
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Hyperspectral instruments acquire electromagnetic energy scattered within their ground instantaneous field view in hundreds of spectral channels with high spectral resolution. Very often, however, owing to low spatial resolution of the scanner or to the presence of intimate mixtures (mixing of the materials at a very small scale) in the scene, the spectral vectors (collection of signals acquired at different spectral bands from a given pixel) acquired by the hyperspectral scanners are actually mixtures of the spectral signatures of the materials present in the scene. Given a set of mixed spectral vectors, spectral mixture analysis (or spectral unmixing) aims at estimating the number of reference materials, also called endmembers, their spectral signatures, and their fractional abundances. Spectral unmixing is, thus, a source separation problem where, under a linear mixing model, the sources are the fractional abundances and the endmember spectral signatures are the columns of the mixing matrix. As such, the independent component analysis (ICA) framework came naturally to mind to unmix spectral data. However, the ICA crux assumption of source statistical independence is not satisfied in spectral applications, since the sources are fractions and, thus, nonnegative and sum to one. As a consequence, ICAbased algorithms have severe limitations in the area of spectral unmixing, and this has fostered new unmixing research directions taking into account geometric and statistical characteristics of hyperspectral sources. This paper presents an overview of the principal research directions in hyperspectral unmixing. The presentations is organized into four main topics: i) mixing models, ii) signal subspace identification, iii) geometricalbased spectral unmixing, (iv) statisticalbased spectral unmixing, and (v) sparse regressionbased unmixing. In each topic, we describe what physical or mathematical problems are involved and summarize stateoftheart algorithms to address these problems.
A signal processing perspective on hyperspectral unmixing: Insights from remote sensing
 IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
, 2014
"... Blind hyperspectral unmixing (HU), also known as unsupervised HU, is one of the most prominent research topics in signal processing for hyperspectral remote sensing [1, 2]. Blind HU aims at identifying materials present in a captured scene, ..."
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Cited by 14 (7 self)
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Blind hyperspectral unmixing (HU), also known as unsupervised HU, is one of the most prominent research topics in signal processing for hyperspectral remote sensing [1, 2]. Blind HU aims at identifying materials present in a captured scene,
Collaborative Sparse Regression For Hyperspectral Unmixing
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING
, 2013
"... Sparse unmixing has been recently introduced in hyperspectral imaging as a framework to characterize mixed pixels. It assumes that the observed image signatures can be expressed in the form of linear combinations of a number of pure spectral signatures known in advance (e.g., spectra collected on th ..."
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Cited by 11 (4 self)
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Sparse unmixing has been recently introduced in hyperspectral imaging as a framework to characterize mixed pixels. It assumes that the observed image signatures can be expressed in the form of linear combinations of a number of pure spectral signatures known in advance (e.g., spectra collected on the ground by a field spectroradiometer). Unmixing then amounts to finding the optimal subset of signatures in a (potentially very large) spectral library that can best model each mixed pixel in the scene. In this paper, we present a refinement of the sparse unmixing methodology recently introduced which exploits the usual very low number of endmembers present in real images, out of a very large library. Specifically, we adopt the collaborative (also called “multitask” or “simultaneous”) sparse regression framework that improves the unmixing results by solving a joint sparse regression problem, where the sparsity is simultaneously imposed to all pixels in the data set. Our experimental results with both synthetic and real hyperspectral data sets show clearly the advantages obtained using the new joint sparse regression strategy, compared with the pixelwise independent approach.
A Sparse Regression Approach to Hyperspectral Unmixing
, 2011
"... Spectral unmixing is an important problem in hyperspectral data exploitation. It amounts at characterizing the mixed spectral signatures collected by an imaging instrument in the form of a combination of pure spectral constituents (endmembers), weighted by their correspondent abundance fractions. Li ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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Spectral unmixing is an important problem in hyperspectral data exploitation. It amounts at characterizing the mixed spectral signatures collected by an imaging instrument in the form of a combination of pure spectral constituents (endmembers), weighted by their correspondent abundance fractions. Linear spectral unmixing is a popular technique in the literature which assumes linear interactions between the endmembers, thus simplifying the characterization of the mixtures and approaching the problem from a general perspective independent of the physical properties of the observed materials. However, linear spectral unmixing suffers from several shortcomings. First, it is unlikely to find completely pure spectral endmembers in the image data due to spatial resolution and mixture phenomena. Second, the linear mixture model does not naturally include spatial information, which is an important source of information (together with spectral information) to solve the unmixing problem. In this thesis, we propose a completely new approach for spectral unmixing which makes use of spectral libraries of materials collected on the ground or in a laboratory, thus circumventing the problems associated to image endmember extraction. Due to the increasing availability and dimensionality of spectral libraries, this problem calls for efficient sparse regularizers. The resulting approach is called
Template Matching via L1 Minimization and Its Application to Hyperspectral Data
 Inverse Problems and Imaging
, 2011
"... Abstract. Detecting and identifying targets or objects that are present in hyperspectral ground images are of great interest. Applications include land and environmental monitoring, mining, military, civil searchandrescue operations, and so on. We propose and analyze an extremely simple and effic ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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Abstract. Detecting and identifying targets or objects that are present in hyperspectral ground images are of great interest. Applications include land and environmental monitoring, mining, military, civil searchandrescue operations, and so on. We propose and analyze an extremely simple and efficient idea for template matching based on l1 minimization. The designed algorithm can be applied in hyperspectral classification and target detection. Synthetic image data and real hyperspectral image (HSI) data are used to assess the performance, with comparisons to other approaches, e.g. spectral angle map (SAM), adaptive coherence estimator (ACE), generalizedlikelihood ratio test (GLRT) and matched filter. We demonstrate that this algorithm achieves excellent results with both high speed and accuracy by using Bregman iteration.