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624
Mean shift: A robust approach toward feature space analysis
 In PAMI
, 2002
"... A general nonparametric technique is proposed for the analysis of a complex multimodal feature space and to delineate arbitrarily shaped clusters in it. The basic computational module of the technique is an old pattern recognition procedure, the mean shift. We prove for discrete data the convergence ..."
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Cited by 2395 (37 self)
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A general nonparametric technique is proposed for the analysis of a complex multimodal feature space and to delineate arbitrarily shaped clusters in it. The basic computational module of the technique is an old pattern recognition procedure, the mean shift. We prove for discrete data the convergence of a recursive mean shift procedure to the nearest stationary point of the underlying density function and thus its utility in detecting the modes of the density. The equivalence of the mean shift procedure to the Nadaraya–Watson estimator from kernel regression and the robust Mestimators of location is also established. Algorithms for two lowlevel vision tasks, discontinuity preserving smoothing and image segmentation are described as applications. In these algorithms the only user set parameter is the resolution of the analysis, and either gray level or color images are accepted as input. Extensive experimental results illustrate their excellent performance.
Combined Object Categorization and Segmentation With An Implicit Shape Model
 In ECCV workshop on statistical learning in computer vision
, 2004
"... We present a method for object categorization in realworld scenes. Following a common consensus in the field, we do not assume that a figureground segmentation is available prior to recognition. However, in contrast to most standard approaches for object class recognition, our approach automatical ..."
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Cited by 406 (10 self)
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We present a method for object categorization in realworld scenes. Following a common consensus in the field, we do not assume that a figureground segmentation is available prior to recognition. However, in contrast to most standard approaches for object class recognition, our approach automatically segments the object as a result of the categorization. This combination of recognition and segmentation into one process is made possible by our use of an Implicit Shape Model, which integrates both capabilities into a common probabilistic framework. In addition to the recognition and segmentation result, it also generates a perpixel confidence measure specifying the area that supports a hypothesis and how much it can be trusted. We use this confidence to derive a natural extension of the approach to handle multiple objects in a scene and resolve ambiguities between overlapping hypotheses with a novel MDLbased criterion. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of our method on a standard dataset for car detection and compare its performance to existing methods from the literature. Our results show that the proposed method significantly outperforms previously published methods while needing one order of magnitude less training examples. Finally, we present results for articulated objects, which show that the proposed method can categorize and segment unfamiliar objects in different articulations and with widely varying texture patterns, even under significant partial occlusion.
Computer Vision Face Tracking For Use in a Perceptual User Interface
, 1998
"... As a first step towards a perceptual user interface, a computer vision color tracking algorithm is developed and applied towards tracking human faces. Computer vision algorithms that are intended to form part of a perceptual user interface must be fast and efficient. They must be able to track in re ..."
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Cited by 357 (4 self)
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As a first step towards a perceptual user interface, a computer vision color tracking algorithm is developed and applied towards tracking human faces. Computer vision algorithms that are intended to form part of a perceptual user interface must be fast and efficient. They must be able to track in real time yet not absorb a major share of computational resources: other tasks must be able to run while the visual interface is being used. The new algorithm developed here is based on a robust nonparametric technique for climbing density gradients to find the mode (peak) of probability distributions called the mean shift algorithm. In our case, we want to find the mode of a color distribution within a video scene. Therefore, the mean shift algorithm is modified to deal with dynamically changing color probability distributions derived from video frame sequences. The modified algorithm is called the Continuously Adaptive Mean Shift (CAMSHIFT) algorithm. CAMSHIFT’s tracking accuracy is compared against a Polhemus tracker. Tolerance to noise, distractors and performance is studied. CAMSHIFT is then used as a computer interface for controlling commercial computer games and for exploring immersive 3D graphic worlds.
Online selection of discriminative tracking features
, 2003
"... This paper presents an online feature selection mechanism for evaluating multiple features while tracking and adjusting the set of features used to improve tracking performance. Our hypothesis is that the features that best discriminate between object and background are also best for tracking the ..."
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Cited by 356 (5 self)
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This paper presents an online feature selection mechanism for evaluating multiple features while tracking and adjusting the set of features used to improve tracking performance. Our hypothesis is that the features that best discriminate between object and background are also best for tracking the object. Given a set of seed features, we compute log likelihood ratios of class conditional sample densities from object and background to form a new set of candidate features tailored to the local object/background discrimination task. The twoclass variance ratio is used to rank these new features according to how well they separate sample distributions of object and background pixels. This feature evaluation mechanism is embedded in a meanshift tracking system that adaptively selects the topranked discriminative features for tracking. Examples are presented that demonstrate how this method adapts to changing appearances of both tracked object and scene background. We note susceptibility of the variance ratio feature selection method to distraction by spatially correlated background clutter, and develop an additional approach that seeks to minimize the likelihood of distraction.
Image Segmentation by Data Driven Markov Chain Monte Carlo
, 2001
"... This paper presents a computational paradigm called Data Driven Markov Chain Monte Carlo (DDMCMC) for image segmentation in the Bayesian statistical framework. The paper contributes to image segmentation in three aspects. Firstly, it designs effective and well balanced Markov Chain dynamics to exp ..."
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Cited by 277 (32 self)
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This paper presents a computational paradigm called Data Driven Markov Chain Monte Carlo (DDMCMC) for image segmentation in the Bayesian statistical framework. The paper contributes to image segmentation in three aspects. Firstly, it designs effective and well balanced Markov Chain dynamics to explore the solution space and makes the split and merge process reversible at a middle level vision formulation. Thus it achieves globally optimal solution independent of initial segmentations. Secondly, instead of computing a single maximum a posteriori solution, it proposes a mathematical principle for computing multiple distinct solutions to incorporates intrinsic ambiguities in image segmentation. A kadventurers algorithm is proposed for extracting distinct multiple solutions from the Markov chain sequence. Thirdly, it utilizes datadriven (bottomup) techniques, such as clustering and edge detection, to compute importance proposal probabilities, which eectively drive the Markov chain dynamics and achieve tremendous speedup in comparison to traditional jumpdiffusion method[4]. Thus DDMCMC paradigm provides a unifying framework where the role of existing segmentation algorithms, such as, edge detection, clustering, region growing, splitmerge, SNAKEs, region competition, are revealed as either realizing Markov chain dynamics or computing importance proposal probabilities. We report some results on color and grey level image segmentation in this paper and refer to a detailed report and a web site for extensive discussion.
Robust Analysis of Feature Spaces: Color Image Segmentation
, 1997
"... A general technique for the recovery of significant image features is presented. The technique is basedon the mean shift algorithm, a simple nonparametric procedure for estimating density gradients. Drawbacks of the current methods (including robust clustering) are avoided. Featurespace of any natu ..."
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Cited by 226 (6 self)
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A general technique for the recovery of significant image features is presented. The technique is basedon the mean shift algorithm, a simple nonparametric procedure for estimating density gradients. Drawbacks of the current methods (including robust clustering) are avoided. Featurespace of any naturecan beprocessed, and as an example, color image segmentation is discussed. The segmentation is completely autonomous, only its class is chosen by the user. Thus, the same program can produce a high quality edge image, or provide, by extracting all the significant colors, a preprocessor for contentbased query systems. A 512 x 512 color image is analyzed in less than 10 seconds on a standard workstation. Gray level images are handled as color images having only the lightness coordinate.
Mean shift blob tracking through scale space
 in Proc. CVPR
"... The meanshift algorithm is an efficient technique for tracking 2D blobs through an image. Although the scale of the meanshift kernel is a crucial parameter, there is presently no clean mechanism for choosing this scale or updating it while tracking blobs that are changing in size. In this paper, ..."
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Cited by 207 (3 self)
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The meanshift algorithm is an efficient technique for tracking 2D blobs through an image. Although the scale of the meanshift kernel is a crucial parameter, there is presently no clean mechanism for choosing this scale or updating it while tracking blobs that are changing in size. In this paper, we adapt Lindeberg’s theory of feature scale selection based on local maxima of differential scalespace filters to the problem of selecting kernel scale for meanshift blob tracking. We show that a difference of Gaussian (DOG) meanshift kernel enables efficient tracking of blobs through scale space. Using this kernel requires generalizing the meanshift algorithm to handle images that contain negative sample weights. 1.
Mean Shift Analysis and Applications
, 1999
"... A nonparametric estimator of density gradient, the mean shift, is employed in the joint, spatialrange (value) domain of gray level and color images for discontinuity preserving filtering and image segmentation. Properties of the mean shift are reviewed and its convergence on lattices is proven. The ..."
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Cited by 200 (9 self)
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A nonparametric estimator of density gradient, the mean shift, is employed in the joint, spatialrange (value) domain of gray level and color images for discontinuity preserving filtering and image segmentation. Properties of the mean shift are reviewed and its convergence on lattices is proven. The proposed filtering method associates with each pixel in the image the closest local mode in the density distribution of the joint domain. Segmentation into a piecewise constant structure requires only one more step, fusion of the regions associated with nearby modes. The proposed technique has two parameters controlling the resolution in the spatial and range domains. Since convergence is guaranteed, the technique does not require the intervention of the user to stop the filtering at the desired image quality. Several examples, for gray and color images, show the versatilityofthe method and compare favorably with results described in the literature for the same images.