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62
Markov Logic Networks
 MACHINE LEARNING
, 2006
"... We propose a simple approach to combining firstorder logic and probabilistic graphical models in a single representation. A Markov logic network (MLN) is a firstorder knowledge base with a weight attached to each formula (or clause). Together with a set of constants representing objects in the ..."
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Cited by 811 (39 self)
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We propose a simple approach to combining firstorder logic and probabilistic graphical models in a single representation. A Markov logic network (MLN) is a firstorder knowledge base with a weight attached to each formula (or clause). Together with a set of constants representing objects in the domain, it specifies a ground Markov network containing one feature for each possible grounding of a firstorder formula in the KB, with the corresponding weight. Inference in MLNs is performed by MCMC over the minimal subset of the ground network required for answering the query. Weights are efficiently learned from relational databases by iteratively optimizing a pseudolikelihood measure. Optionally, additional clauses are learned using inductive logic programming techniques. Experiments with a realworld database and knowledge base in a university domain illustrate the promise of this approach.
Lifted firstorder probabilistic inference
 In Proceedings of IJCAI05, 19th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 2005
"... Most probabilistic inference algorithms are specified and processed on a propositional level. In the last decade, many proposals for algorithms accepting firstorder specifications have been presented, but in the inference stage they still operate on a mostly propositional representation level. [Poo ..."
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Cited by 125 (8 self)
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Most probabilistic inference algorithms are specified and processed on a propositional level. In the last decade, many proposals for algorithms accepting firstorder specifications have been presented, but in the inference stage they still operate on a mostly propositional representation level. [Poole, 2003] presented a method to perform inference directly on the firstorder level, but this method is limited to special cases. In this paper we present the first exact inference algorithm that operates directly on a firstorder level, and that can be applied to any firstorder model (specified in a language that generalizes undirected graphical models). Our experiments show superior performance in comparison with propositional exact inference. 1
Markov Logic: A Unifying Framework for Statistical Relational Learning
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ICML2004 WORKSHOP ON STATISTICAL RELATIONAL LEARNING AND ITS CONNECTIONS TO OTHER FIELDS
, 2004
"... Interest in statistical relational learning (SRL) has grown rapidly in recent years. Several key SRL tasks have been identified, and a large number of approaches have been proposed. Increasingly, a ..."
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Cited by 93 (0 self)
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Interest in statistical relational learning (SRL) has grown rapidly in recent years. Several key SRL tasks have been identified, and a large number of approaches have been proposed. Increasingly, a
Probabilistic Logic Learning
 ACMSIGKDD Explorations: Special issue on MultiRelational Data Mining
, 2004
"... The past few years have witnessed an significant interest in probabilistic logic learning, i.e. in research lying at the intersection of probabilistic reasoning, logical representations, and machine learning. A rich variety of di#erent formalisms and learning techniques have been developed. This pap ..."
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Cited by 43 (10 self)
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The past few years have witnessed an significant interest in probabilistic logic learning, i.e. in research lying at the intersection of probabilistic reasoning, logical representations, and machine learning. A rich variety of di#erent formalisms and learning techniques have been developed. This paper provides an introductory survey and overview of the stateof theart in probabilistic logic learning through the identification of a number of important probabilistic, logical and learning concepts.
Relational Data Mining with Inductive Logic Programming for Link Discovery
 In Proceedings of the National Science Foundation Workshop on Next Generation Data Mining
, 2002
"... Link discovery (LD) is an important task in data mining for counterterrorism and is the focus of DARPA's Evidence Extraction and Link Discovery (EELD) research program. Link discovery concerns the identification of complex relational patterns that indicate potentially threatening activities in ..."
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Cited by 41 (7 self)
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Link discovery (LD) is an important task in data mining for counterterrorism and is the focus of DARPA's Evidence Extraction and Link Discovery (EELD) research program. Link discovery concerns the identification of complex relational patterns that indicate potentially threatening activities in large amounts of relational data. Most datamining methods assume data is in the form of a featurevector (a single relational table) and cannot handle multirelational data. Inductive logic programming is a form of relational data mining that discovers rules in firstorder logic from multirelational data. This paper discusses the application of ILP to learning patterns for link discovery.
On the Implementation of the Probabilistic Logic Programming Language ProbLog
 UNDER CONSIDERATION FOR PUBLICATION IN THEORY AND PRACTICE OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING
, 2003
"... The past few years have seen a surge of interest in the field of probabilistic logic learning and statistical relational learning. In this endeavor, many probabilistic logics have been developed. ProbLog is a recent probabilistic extension of Prolog motivated by the mining of large biological networ ..."
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Cited by 41 (9 self)
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The past few years have seen a surge of interest in the field of probabilistic logic learning and statistical relational learning. In this endeavor, many probabilistic logics have been developed. ProbLog is a recent probabilistic extension of Prolog motivated by the mining of large biological networks. In ProbLog, facts can be labeled with probabilities. These facts are treated as mutually independent random variables that indicate whether these facts belong to a randomly sampled program. Different kinds of queries can be posed to ProbLog programs. We introduce algorithms that allow the efficient execution of these queries, discuss their implementation on top of the YAPProlog system, and evaluate their performance in the context of large networks of biological entities.
CPlogic: A Language of Causal Probabilistic Events and Its Relation to Logic Programming
"... We examine the relation between constructive processes and the concept of causality. We observe that causality has an inherent dynamic aspect, i.e., that, in essence, causal information concerns the evolution of a domain over time. Motivated by this observation, we construct a new representation lan ..."
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Cited by 31 (4 self)
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We examine the relation between constructive processes and the concept of causality. We observe that causality has an inherent dynamic aspect, i.e., that, in essence, causal information concerns the evolution of a domain over time. Motivated by this observation, we construct a new representation language for causal knowledge, whose semantics is defined explicitly in terms of constructive processes. This is done in a probabilistic context, where the basic steps that make up the process are allowed to have nondeterministic effects. We then show that a theory in this language defines a unique probability distribution over the possible outcomes of such a process. This result offers an appealing explanation for the usefulness of causal information and links our explicitly dynamic approach to more static causal probabilistic modeling languages, such as Bayesian networks. We also show that this language, which we have constructed to be a natural formalization of a certain kind of causal statements, is closely related to logic programming. This result demonstrates that, under an appropriate formal semantics, a rule of a normal, a disjunctive or a certain kind of probabilistic logic program can be interpreted as a description of a causal event.
Logical Bayesian Networks and their relation to other probabilistic logical models
 In Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Inductive Logic Pogramming (ILP05), volume 3625 of Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence
, 2005
"... We review Logical Bayesian Networks, a language for probabilistic logical modelling, and discuss its relation to Probabilistic Relational Models and Bayesian Logic Programs. 1 Probabilistic Logical Models Probabilistic logical models are models combining aspects of probability theory with aspects of ..."
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Cited by 31 (10 self)
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We review Logical Bayesian Networks, a language for probabilistic logical modelling, and discuss its relation to Probabilistic Relational Models and Bayesian Logic Programs. 1 Probabilistic Logical Models Probabilistic logical models are models combining aspects of probability theory with aspects of Logic Programming, firstorder logic or relational languages. Recently a variety of languages to describe such models has been introduced. For some languages techniques exist to learn such models from data. Two examples are Probabilistic Relational Models (PRMs) [4] and Bayesian Logic Programs (BLPs) [5]. These two languages are probably the most popular and wellknown in the Relational Data Mining community. We introduce a new language, Logical Bayesian Networks (LBNs) [2], that is strongly related to PRMs and BLPs yet solves some of their problems with respect to knowledge representation (related to expressiveness and intuitiveness). PRMs, BLPs and LBNs all follow the principle of Knowledge Based Model Construction: they offer a language that can be used to specify general probabilistic logical knowledge and they provide a methodology to construct a propositional model based on this knowledge when given a specific
The PITA System: Tabling and Answer Subsumption for Reasoning under Uncertainty
 UNDER CONSIDERATION FOR PUBLICATION IN THEORY AND PRACTICE OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING
, 2003
"... Many real world domains require the representation of a measure of uncertainty. The most common such representation is probability, and the combination of probability with logic programs has given rise to the field of Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP), leading to languages such as the Independen ..."
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Cited by 26 (11 self)
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Many real world domains require the representation of a measure of uncertainty. The most common such representation is probability, and the combination of probability with logic programs has given rise to the field of Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP), leading to languages such as the IndependentChoice Logic, Logic Programs with Annotated Disjunctions (LPADs), Problog, PRISM and others. These languages share a similar distribution semantics, and methods have been devised to translate programs between these languages. The complexity of computing the probability of queries to these general PLP programs is very high due to the need to combine the probabilities of explanations that may not be exclusive. As one alternative, the PRISM system reduces the complexity of query answering by restricting the form of programs it can evaluate. As an entirely different alternative, Possibilistic Logic Programs adopt a simpler metric of uncertainty than probability. Each of these approaches – general PLP, restricted PLP, and Possibilistic Logic Programming – can be useful in different domains depending on the form of uncertainty to be represented, on the form of programs needed to model problems, and on the scale of
View learning for statistical relational learning: With an application to mammography
 Proceeding of the 19th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 2005
"... Statistical relational learning (SRL) constructs probabilistic models from relational databases. A key capability of SRL is the learning of arcs (in the Bayes net sense) connecting entries in different rows of a relational table, or in different tables. Nevertheless, SRL approaches currently are con ..."
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Cited by 21 (9 self)
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Statistical relational learning (SRL) constructs probabilistic models from relational databases. A key capability of SRL is the learning of arcs (in the Bayes net sense) connecting entries in different rows of a relational table, or in different tables. Nevertheless, SRL approaches currently are constrained to use the existing database schema. For many database applications, users find it profitable to define alternative “views ” of the database, in effect defining new fields or tables. Such new fields or tables can also be highly useful in learning. We provide SRL with the capability of learning new views. 1