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Fading Channels: InformationTheoretic And Communications Aspects
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1998
"... In this paper we review the most peculiar and interesting informationtheoretic and communications features of fading channels. We first describe the statistical models of fading channels which are frequently used in the analysis and design of communication systems. Next, we focus on the information ..."
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Cited by 426 (3 self)
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In this paper we review the most peculiar and interesting informationtheoretic and communications features of fading channels. We first describe the statistical models of fading channels which are frequently used in the analysis and design of communication systems. Next, we focus on the information theory of fading channels, by emphasizing capacity as the most important performance measure. Both singleuser and multiuser transmission are examined. Further, we describe how the structure of fading channels impacts code design, and finally overview equalization of fading multipath channels.
Linear Multiuser Receivers: Effective Interference, Effective Bandwidth and User Capacity
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 1999
"... Multiuser receivers improve the performance of spreadspectrum and antennaarray systems by exploiting the structure of the multiaccess interference when demodulating the signal of a user. Much of the previous work on the performance analysis of multiuser receivers has focused on their ability to re ..."
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Cited by 361 (13 self)
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Multiuser receivers improve the performance of spreadspectrum and antennaarray systems by exploiting the structure of the multiaccess interference when demodulating the signal of a user. Much of the previous work on the performance analysis of multiuser receivers has focused on their ability to reject worst case interference. Their performance in a powercontrolled network and the resulting user capacity are less wellunderstood. In this paper, we show that in a large system with each user using random spreading sequences, the limiting interference effects under several linear multiuser receivers can be decoupled, such that each interferer can be ascribed a level of effective interference that it provides to the user to be demodulated. Applying these results to the uplink of a single powercontrolled cell, we derive an effective bandwidth characterization of the user capacity: the signaltointerference requirements of all the users can be met if and only if the sum of the effective bandwidths of the users is less than the total number of degrees of freedom in the system. The effective bandwidth of a user depends only on its own SIR requirement, and simple expressions are derived for three linear receivers: the conventional matched filter, the decorrelator, and the MMSE receiver. The effective bandwidths under the three receivers serve as a basis for performance comparison.
Blind Adaptive Multiuser Detection
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 1995
"... The decorrelating detector and the linear minimum meansquare error (MMSE) detector are known to be effective strategies to counter the presence of multiuser interference in codedivision multipleaccess channels; in particular, those multiuser detectors provide optimum nearfar resistance. When tr ..."
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Cited by 353 (16 self)
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The decorrelating detector and the linear minimum meansquare error (MMSE) detector are known to be effective strategies to counter the presence of multiuser interference in codedivision multipleaccess channels; in particular, those multiuser detectors provide optimum nearfar resistance. When training data sequences are available, the MMSE multiuser detector can be implemented adaptively without knowledge of signature waveforms or received amplitudes. This paper introduces an adaptive multiuser detector which converges (for any initialization) to the MMSE detector without requiring training sequences. This blind multiuser detector requires no more knowledge than does the conventional singleuser receiver: the desired user’s signature waveform and its timing. The proposed blind multiuser detector is made robust with respect to imprecise knowledge of the received signature waveform of the user of interest.
Spectral Efficiency of CDMA with Random Spreading
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 1999
"... The CDMA channel with randomly and independently chosen spreading sequences accurately models the situation where pseudonoise sequences span many symbol periods. Furthermore, its analysis provides a comparison baseline for CDMA channels with deterministic signature waveforms spanning one symbol per ..."
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Cited by 313 (23 self)
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The CDMA channel with randomly and independently chosen spreading sequences accurately models the situation where pseudonoise sequences span many symbol periods. Furthermore, its analysis provides a comparison baseline for CDMA channels with deterministic signature waveforms spanning one symbol period. We analyze the spectral efficiency (total capacity per chip) as a function of the number of users, spreading gain, and signaltonoise ratio, and we quantify the loss in efficiency relative to an optimally chosen set of signature sequences and relative to multiaccess with no spreading. White Gaussian background noise and equalpower synchronous users are assumed. The following receivers are analyzed: a) optimal joint processing, b) singleuser matched filtering, c) decorrelation, and d) MMSE linear processing.
Simplified processing for high spectral efficiency wireless communication employing multielement arrays
 IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun
, 1999
"... Abstract — We investigate robust wireless communication in highscattering propagation environments using multielement antenna arrays (MEA’s) at both transmit and receive sites. A simplified, but highly spectrally efficient space–time communication processing method is presented. The user’s bit str ..."
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Cited by 256 (4 self)
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Abstract — We investigate robust wireless communication in highscattering propagation environments using multielement antenna arrays (MEA’s) at both transmit and receive sites. A simplified, but highly spectrally efficient space–time communication processing method is presented. The user’s bit stream is mapped to a vector of independently modulated equal bitrate signal components that are simultaneously transmitted in the same band. A detection algorithm similar to multiuser detection is employed to detect the signal components in white Gaussian noise (WGN). For a large number of antennas, a more efficient architecture can offer no more than about 40 % more capacity than the simple architecture presented. A testbed that is now being completed operates at 1.9 GHz with up to 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) transmitters and 16 receive antennas. Under ideal operation at 18 dB signaltonoise ratio (SNR), using 12 transmit antennas and 16 receive antennas (even with uncoded communication), the theoretical spectral efficiency is 36 bit/s/Hz, whereas the Shannon capacity is 71.1 bit/s/Hz. The 36 bits per vector symbol, which corresponds to over 200 billion constellation points, assumes a 5 % block error rate (BLER) for 100 vector symbol bursts. Index Terms — Antenna diversity, multielement arrays (MEA’s), space–time processing, wireless communications.
Probability of error in MMSE multiuser detection
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 1997
"... Abstract—Performance analysis of the minimummeansquareerror (MMSE) linear multiuser detector is considered in an environment of nonorthogonal signaling and additive white Gaussian noise. In particular, the behavior of the multipleaccess interference (MAI) at the output of the MMSE detector is exa ..."
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Cited by 202 (15 self)
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Abstract—Performance analysis of the minimummeansquareerror (MMSE) linear multiuser detector is considered in an environment of nonorthogonal signaling and additive white Gaussian noise. In particular, the behavior of the multipleaccess interference (MAI) at the output of the MMSE detector is examined under various asymptotic conditions, including: large signaltonoise ratio; large near–far ratios; and large numbers of users. These results suggest that the MAIplusnoise contending with the demodulation of a desired user is approximately Gaussian in many cases of interest. For the particular case of two users, it is shown that the maximum divergence between the output MAIplusnoise and a Gaussian distribution having the same mean and variance is quite small in most cases of interest. It is further proved in this twouser case that the probability of error of the MMSE detector is better than that of the decorrelating linear detector for all values of normalized crosscorrelations not greater than I
Large System Performance of Linear Multiuser Receivers in Multipath Fading Channels
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2000
"... A linear multiuser receiver for a particular user in a codedivision multipleaccess (CDMA) network gains potential benefits from knowledge of the channels of all users in the system. In fast multipath fading environments we cannot assume that the channel estimates are perfect and the inevitable cha ..."
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Cited by 102 (6 self)
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A linear multiuser receiver for a particular user in a codedivision multipleaccess (CDMA) network gains potential benefits from knowledge of the channels of all users in the system. In fast multipath fading environments we cannot assume that the channel estimates are perfect and the inevitable channel estimation errors will limit this potential gain. In this paper, we study the impact of channel estimation errors on the performance of linear multiuser receivers, as well as the channel estimation problem itself. Of particular interest are the scalability properties of the channel and data estimation algorithms: what happens to the performance as the system bandwidth and the number of users (and hence channels to estimate) grows? Our main results involve asymptotic expressions for the signaltointerference ratio of linear multiuser receivers in the limit of large processing gain, with the number of users divided by the processing gain held constant. We employ a random model for the spreading sequences and the limiting signaltointerference ratio expressions are independent of the actual signature sequences, depending only on the system loading and the channel statistics: background noise power, energy profile of resolvable multipaths, and channel coherence time. The effect of channel uncertainty on the performance of multiuser receivers is succinctly captured by the notion of effective interference.
Optimal Sequences, Power Control, and User Capacity of Synchronous CDMA Systems with Linear MMSE Multiuser Receivers
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 1999
"... There has been intense effort in the past decade to develop multiuser receiver structures which mitigate interference between users in spreadspectrum systems. While much of this research is performed at the physical layer, the appropriate power control and choice of signature sequences in conjuncti ..."
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Cited by 102 (5 self)
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There has been intense effort in the past decade to develop multiuser receiver structures which mitigate interference between users in spreadspectrum systems. While much of this research is performed at the physical layer, the appropriate power control and choice of signature sequences in conjunction with multiuser receivers and the resulting network user capacity is not well understood. In this paper we will focus on a single cell and consider both the uplink and downlink scenarios and assume a synchronous CDMA (SCDMA) system. We characterize the user capacity of a single cell with the optimal linear receiver (MMSE receiver). The user capacity of the system is the maximum number of users per unit processing gain admissible in the system such that each user has its qualityofservice (QoS) requirement (expressed in terms of its desired signaltointerference ratio) met. Our characterization allows us to describe the user capacity through a simple effective bandwidth characterization: Users are allowed in the system if and only if the sum of their effective bandwidths is less than the processing gain of the system. The effective bandwidth of each user is a simple monotonic function of its QoS requirement. We identify the optimal signature sequences and power control strategies so that the users meet their QoS requirement. The optimality is in the sense of minimizing the sum of allocated powers. It turns out that with this optimal allocation of signature sequences and powers, the linear MMSE receiver is just the corresponding matched filter for each user. We also characterize the effect of transmit power constraints on the user capacity.
A gametheoretic approach to energyefficient power control in multicarrier CDMA systems
 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC
, 2006
"... Abstract—A gametheoretic model for studying power control in multicarrier codedivision multipleaccess systems is proposed. Power control is modeled as a noncooperative game in which each user decides how much power to transmit over each carrier to maximize its own utility. The utility function co ..."
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Cited by 89 (8 self)
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Abstract—A gametheoretic model for studying power control in multicarrier codedivision multipleaccess systems is proposed. Power control is modeled as a noncooperative game in which each user decides how much power to transmit over each carrier to maximize its own utility. The utility function considered here measures the number of reliable bits transmitted over all the carriers per joule of energy consumed and is particularly suitable for networks where energy efficiency is important. The multidimensional nature of users ’ strategies and the nonquasiconcavity of the utility function make the multicarrier problem much more challenging than the singlecarrier or throughputbasedutility case. It is shown that, for all linear receivers including the matched filter, the decorrelator, and the minimummeansquareerror detector, a user’s utility is maximized when the user transmits only on its “best ” carrier. This is the carrier that requires the least amount of power to achieve a particular target signaltointerferenceplusnoise ratio at the output of the receiver. The existence and uniqueness of Nash equilibrium for the proposed power control game are studied. In particular, conditions are given that must be satisfied by the channel gains for a Nash equilibrium to exist, and the distribution of the users among the carriers at equilibrium is characterized. In addition, an iterative and distributed algorithm for reaching the equilibrium (when it exists) is presented. It is shown that the proposed approach results in significant improvements in the total utility achieved at equilibrium compared with a singlecarrier system and also to a multicarrier system in which each user maximizes its utility over each carrier independently. Index Terms—Energy efficiency, game theory, multicarrier codedivision multipleaccess (CDMA), multiuser detection, Nash equilibrium, power control, utility function. I.