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226
Quantization Index Modulation: A Class of Provably Good Methods for Digital Watermarking and Information Embedding
 IEEE TRANS. ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1999
"... We consider the problem of embedding one signal (e.g., a digital watermark), within another "host" signal to form a third, "composite" signal. The embedding is designed to achieve efficient tradeoffs among the three conflicting goals of maximizing informationembedding rate, mini ..."
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Cited by 495 (15 self)
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We consider the problem of embedding one signal (e.g., a digital watermark), within another "host" signal to form a third, "composite" signal. The embedding is designed to achieve efficient tradeoffs among the three conflicting goals of maximizing informationembedding rate, minimizing distortion between the host signal and composite signal, and maximizing the robustness of the embedding. We introduce new classes of embedding methods, termed quantization index modulation (QIM) and distortioncompensated QIM (DCQIM), and develop convenient realizations in the form of what we refer to as dither modulation. Using deterministic models to evaluate digital watermarking methods, we show that QIM is "provably good" against arbitrary bounded and fully informed attacks, which arise in several copyright applications, and in particular, it achieves provably better rate distortionrobustness tradeoffs than currently popular spreadspectrum and lowbit(s) modulation methods. Furthermore, we show that for some important classes of probabilistic models, DCQIM is optimal (capacityachieving) and regular QIM is nearoptimal. These include both additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels, which may be good models for hybrid transmission applications such as digital audio broadcasting, and meansquareerrorconstrained attack channels that model privatekey watermarking applications.
Fading Channels: InformationTheoretic And Communications Aspects
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1998
"... In this paper we review the most peculiar and interesting informationtheoretic and communications features of fading channels. We first describe the statistical models of fading channels which are frequently used in the analysis and design of communication systems. Next, we focus on the information ..."
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Cited by 416 (3 self)
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In this paper we review the most peculiar and interesting informationtheoretic and communications features of fading channels. We first describe the statistical models of fading channels which are frequently used in the analysis and design of communication systems. Next, we focus on the information theory of fading channels, by emphasizing capacity as the most important performance measure. Both singleuser and multiuser transmission are examined. Further, we describe how the structure of fading channels impacts code design, and finally overview equalization of fading multipath channels.
Nested Linear/Lattice Codes for Structured Multiterminal Binning
, 2002
"... Network information theory promises high gains over simple pointtopoint communication techniques, at the cost of higher complexity. However, lack of structured coding schemes limited the practical application of these concepts so far. One of the basic elements of a network code is the binning sch ..."
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Cited by 352 (15 self)
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Network information theory promises high gains over simple pointtopoint communication techniques, at the cost of higher complexity. However, lack of structured coding schemes limited the practical application of these concepts so far. One of the basic elements of a network code is the binning scheme. Wyner and other researchers proposed various forms of coset codes for efficient binning, yet these schemes were applicable only for lossless source (or noiseless channel) network coding. To extend the algebraic binning approach to lossy source (or noisy channel) network coding, recent work proposed the idea of nested codes, or more specifically, nested paritycheck codes for the binary case and nested lattices in the continuous case. These ideas connect network information theory with the rich areas of linear codes and lattice codes, and have strong potential for practical applications. We review these recent developments and explore their tight relation to concepts such as combined shaping and precoding, coding for memories with defects, and digital watermarking. We also propose a few novel applications adhering to a unified approach.
The capacity region of the Gaussian multipleinput multipleoutput broadcast channel
 IEEE TRANS. INF. THEORY
, 2006
"... The Gaussian multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) broadcast channel (BC) is considered. The dirtypaper coding (DPC) rate region is shown to coincide with the capacity region. To that end, a new notion of an enhanced broadcast channel is introduced and is used jointly with the entropy power inequa ..."
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Cited by 340 (7 self)
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The Gaussian multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) broadcast channel (BC) is considered. The dirtypaper coding (DPC) rate region is shown to coincide with the capacity region. To that end, a new notion of an enhanced broadcast channel is introduced and is used jointly with the entropy power inequality, to show that a superposition of Gaussian codes is optimal for the degraded vector broadcast channel and that DPC is optimal for the nondegraded case. Furthermore, the capacity region is characterized under a wide range of input constraints, accounting, as special cases, for the total power and the perantenna power constraints.
Sum capacity of the vector Gaussian broadcast channel and uplinkdownlink duality
 IEEE Trans. on Inform. Theory
, 1912
"... We characterize the sum capacity of the vector Gaussian broadcast channel by showing that the existing inner bound of Marton and the existing upper bound of Sato are tight for this channel. We exploit an intimate fourway connection between the vector broadcast channel, the corresponding pointtopo ..."
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Cited by 323 (2 self)
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We characterize the sum capacity of the vector Gaussian broadcast channel by showing that the existing inner bound of Marton and the existing upper bound of Sato are tight for this channel. We exploit an intimate fourway connection between the vector broadcast channel, the corresponding pointtopoint channel (where the receivers can cooperate), the multiple access channel (where the role of transmitters and receivers are reversed), and the corresponding pointtopoint channel (where the transmitters can cooperate). 1
Sum Capacity of a Gaussian Vector Broadcast Channel
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2002
"... This paper characterizes the sum capacity of a class of nondegraded Gaussian vectB broadcast channels where a singletransmitter with multiple transmit terminals sends independent information to multiple receivers. Coordinat+[ is allowed among the transmit teminals, but not among the different recei ..."
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Cited by 280 (21 self)
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This paper characterizes the sum capacity of a class of nondegraded Gaussian vectB broadcast channels where a singletransmitter with multiple transmit terminals sends independent information to multiple receivers. Coordinat+[ is allowed among the transmit teminals, but not among the different receivers. The sum capacity is shown t be a saddlepoint of a Gaussian mu al informat]R game, where a signal player chooses a tansmit covariance matrix to maximize the mutual information, and a noise player chooses a fictitious noise correlation to minimize the mutual information. This result holds fort he class of Gaussian channels whose saddlepoint satisfies a full rank condition. Furt her,t he sum capacity is achieved using a precoding method for Gaussian channels with additive side information noncausally known at the transmitter. The optimal precoding structure is shown t correspond to a decisionfeedback equalizer that decomposes t e broadcast channel into a series of singleuser channels with intk ference presubtract] at the transmiter.
Informationtheoretic analysis of information hiding
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 2003
"... Abstract—An informationtheoretic analysis of information hiding is presented in this paper, forming the theoretical basis for design of informationhiding systems. Information hiding is an emerging research area which encompasses applications such as copyright protection for digital media, watermar ..."
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Cited by 269 (19 self)
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Abstract—An informationtheoretic analysis of information hiding is presented in this paper, forming the theoretical basis for design of informationhiding systems. Information hiding is an emerging research area which encompasses applications such as copyright protection for digital media, watermarking, fingerprinting, steganography, and data embedding. In these applications, information is hidden within a host data set and is to be reliably communicated to a receiver. The host data set is intentionally corrupted, but in a covert way, designed to be imperceptible to a casual analysis. Next, an attacker may seek to destroy this hidden information, and for this purpose, introduce additional distortion to the data set. Side information (in the form of cryptographic keys and/or information about the host signal) may be available to the information hider and to the decoder. We formalize these notions and evaluate the hiding capacity, which upperbounds the rates of reliable transmission and quantifies the fundamental tradeoff between three quantities: the achievable informationhiding rates and the allowed distortion levels for the information hider and the attacker. The hiding capacity is the value of a game between the information hider and the attacker. The optimal attack strategy is the solution of a particular ratedistortion problem, and the optimal hiding strategy is the solution to a channelcoding problem. The hiding capacity is derived by extending the Gel’fand–Pinsker theory of communication with side information at the encoder. The extensions include the presence of distortion constraints, side information at the decoder, and unknown communication channel. Explicit formulas for capacity are given in several cases, including Bernoulli and Gaussian problems, as well as the important special case of small distortions. In some cases, including the last two above, the hiding capacity is the same whether or not the decoder knows the host data set. It is shown that many existing informationhiding systems in the literature operate far below capacity. Index Terms—Channel capacity, cryptography, fingerprinting, game theory, information hiding, network information theory,
Achievable Rates in Cognitive Radio Channels
 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
, 2006
"... Cognitive radio promises a low cost, highly flexible alternative to the classic single frequency band, single protocol wireless device. By sensing and adapting to its environment, such a device is able to fill voids in the wireless spectrum and dramatically increase spectral efficiency. In this pape ..."
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Cited by 265 (46 self)
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Cognitive radio promises a low cost, highly flexible alternative to the classic single frequency band, single protocol wireless device. By sensing and adapting to its environment, such a device is able to fill voids in the wireless spectrum and dramatically increase spectral efficiency. In this paper, the cognitive radio channel is defined as an ntransmitter, mreceiver interference channel in which sender i obtains the messages senders 1 through i − 1 plan to transmit. The two sender, two receiver case is considered. In this scenario, one user, a cognitive radio, obtains (genie assisted, or causally) knowledge of the data to be transmitted by the other user. The cognitive radio may then simultaneously transmit over the same channel, as opposed to waiting for an idle channel as in a traditional cognitive radio channel protocol. Dirtypaper coding and ideas from achievable region constructions for the interference channel are used, and an achievable region for the cognitive radio channel is computed. It is shown that in the Gaussian case, the described achievable region approaches the upper bounds provided by the 2×2 Gaussian MIMO broadcast channel, and an interferencefree channel. Results are extended to the case in which the message is causally obtained.
Distributed source coding for sensor networks
 In IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
, 2004
"... n recent years, sensor research has been undergoing a quiet revolution, promising to have a significant impact throughout society that could quite possibly dwarf previous milestones in the information revolution. MIT Technology Review ranked wireless sensor networks that consist of many tiny, low ..."
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Cited by 221 (4 self)
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n recent years, sensor research has been undergoing a quiet revolution, promising to have a significant impact throughout society that could quite possibly dwarf previous milestones in the information revolution. MIT Technology Review ranked wireless sensor networks that consist of many tiny, lowpower and cheap wireless sensors as the number one emerging technology. Unlike PCs or the Internet, which are designed to support all types of applications, sensor networks are usually mission driven and application specific (be it detection of biological agents and toxic chemicals; environmental measurement of temperature, pressure and vibration; or realtime area video surveillance). Thus they must operate under a set of unique constraints and requirements. For example, in contrast to many other wireless devices (e.g., cellular phones, PDAs, and laptops), in which energy can be recharged from time to time, the energy provisioned for a wireless sensor node is not expected to be renewed throughout its mission. The limited amount of energy available to wireless sensors has a significant impact on all aspects of a wireless sensor network, from the amount of information that the node can process, to the volume of wireless communication it can carry across large distances. Realizing the great promise of sensor networks requires more than a mere advance in individual technologies; it relies on many components working together in an efficient, unattended, comprehensible, and trustworthy manner. One of the enabling technologies for sensor networks is distributed source coding (DSC), which refers to the compression of multiple correlated sensor outputs [1]–[4] that do not communicate with each other (hence distributed coding). These sensors send their compressed outputs to a central point [e.g., the base station (BS)] for joint decoding. I
Reliable Communication Under Channel Uncertainty
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 1998
"... In many communication situations, the transmitter and the receiver must be designed without a complete knowledge of the probability law governing the channel over which transmission takes place. Various models for such channels and their corresponding capacities are surveyed. Special emphasis is pla ..."
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Cited by 175 (5 self)
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In many communication situations, the transmitter and the receiver must be designed without a complete knowledge of the probability law governing the channel over which transmission takes place. Various models for such channels and their corresponding capacities are surveyed. Special emphasis is placed on the encoders and decoders which enable reliable communication over these channels.