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159
Evolution Of Social Behavior: Individual And Group Selection
 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES
, 2002
"... How selfish does our evolutionary history suggest that humans will be? We explore models in which groups are formed and dissolved and where reproduction of individuals is determined by their payoffs in a game played within groups. If groups are formed “randomly” and reproductive success of group fou ..."
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Cited by 63 (1 self)
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How selfish does our evolutionary history suggest that humans will be? We explore models in which groups are formed and dissolved and where reproduction of individuals is determined by their payoffs in a game played within groups. If groups are formed “randomly” and reproductive success of group founders is determined by a multiperson prisoners’ dilemma game, then selfish behavior will prevail over maximization of group payoffs. However, interesting models exist in which “group selection” sustains cooperative behavior. Forces that support cooperative behavior include assortative matching in groups, group longevity, and punishmentbased group norms.
Stochastic spatial models
 SIAM Rev
, 1999
"... Abstract. In the models we will consider, space is represented by a grid of sites that can be in one of a finite number of states and that change at rates that depend on the states of a finite number of sites. Our main aim here is to explain an idea of Durrett and Levin (1994): the behavior of these ..."
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Cited by 55 (2 self)
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Abstract. In the models we will consider, space is represented by a grid of sites that can be in one of a finite number of states and that change at rates that depend on the states of a finite number of sites. Our main aim here is to explain an idea of Durrett and Levin (1994): the behavior of these models can be predicted from the properties of the mean field ODE, i.e., the equations for the densities of the various types that result from pretending that all sites are always independent. We will illustrate this picture through a discussion of eight families of examples from statistical mechanics, genetics, population biology, epidemiology, and ecology. Some of our findings are only conjectures based on simulation, but in a number of cases we are able to prove results for systems with “fast stirring ” by exploiting connections between the spatial model and an associated reaction diffusion equation.
Recent Progress in Coalescent Theory
"... Coalescent theory is the study of random processes where particles may join each other to form clusters as time evolves. These notes provide an introduction to some aspects of the mathematics of coalescent processes and their applications to theoretical population genetics and in other fields such ..."
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Cited by 48 (3 self)
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Coalescent theory is the study of random processes where particles may join each other to form clusters as time evolves. These notes provide an introduction to some aspects of the mathematics of coalescent processes and their applications to theoretical population genetics and in other fields such as spin glass models. The emphasis is on recent work concerning in particular the connection of these processes to continuum random trees and spatial models such as coalescing random walks.
The automation and evaluation of nested clade phylogeographic analysis. Evolution
, 2007
"... Abstract.—Nested clade phylogeographic analysis (NCPA) is a widely used method that aims to identify past demographic events that have shaped the history of a population. In an earlier study, NCPA has been fully automated, allowing it to be tested with simulated data sets generated under a null mode ..."
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Cited by 22 (1 self)
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Abstract.—Nested clade phylogeographic analysis (NCPA) is a widely used method that aims to identify past demographic events that have shaped the history of a population. In an earlier study, NCPA has been fully automated, allowing it to be tested with simulated data sets generated under a null model in which samples simulated from a panmictic population are geographically distributed. It was noted that NCPA was prone to inferring false positives, corroborating earlier findings. The present study aims to evaluate both singlelocus and multilocus NCPA under the scenario of restricted gene flow among spatially distributed populations. We have developed a new program, ANeCAML, which implements multilocus NCPA. Data were simulated under 3 models of gene flow: a stepping stone model, an island model, and a stepping stone model with some longdistance dispersal. Results indicate that singlelocus NCPA tends to give a high frequency of false positives, but, unlike the randommating scenario presented previously, inferences are not limited to restricted gene flow with isolation by distance or contiguous range expansion. The proportion of singlelocus data sets that contained false inferences was 76 % for the panmictic case, 87 % for the stepping stone model, 79 % for the stepping stone model with longdistance dispersal, and more than 99 % for the island model. The frequency of inferences is inversely related to the amount
Damage segregation at fissioning may increase growth rates : a superprocess model
, 2006
"... A fissioning organism may purge unrepairable damage by bequeathing it preferentially to one of its daughters. Using the mathematical formalism of superprocesses, we propose a flexible class of analytically tractable models that allow quite general effects of damage on death rates and splitting rate ..."
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Cited by 22 (1 self)
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A fissioning organism may purge unrepairable damage by bequeathing it preferentially to one of its daughters. Using the mathematical formalism of superprocesses, we propose a flexible class of analytically tractable models that allow quite general effects of damage on death rates and splitting rates and similarly general damage segregation mechanisms. We show that, in a suitable regime, the effects of randomness in damage segregation at fissioning are indistinguishable from those of randomness in the mechanism of damage accumulation during the organism’s lifetime. Moreover, the optimal population growth is achieved for a particular finite, nonzero level of combined randomness from these two sources. In particular, when damage accumulates deterministically, optimal population growth is achieved by a moderately unequal division of damage between the daughters. Too little or too much division is suboptimal. Connections are drawn both to recent experimental results on inheritance of damage in protozoans, to theories of the evolution of aging, and to models of resource division between siblings.
Stochastic models of evolution in genetics, ecology and linguistics
, 2007
"... Abstract. We give a overview of stochastic models of evolution that have found applications in genetics, ecology and linguistics for an audience of nonspecialists, especially statistical physicists. In particular, we focus mostly on neutral models in which no intrinsic advantage is ascribed to a par ..."
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Cited by 21 (3 self)
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Abstract. We give a overview of stochastic models of evolution that have found applications in genetics, ecology and linguistics for an audience of nonspecialists, especially statistical physicists. In particular, we focus mostly on neutral models in which no intrinsic advantage is ascribed to a particular type of the variable unit, for example a gene, appearing in the theory. In many cases these models are exactly solvable and furthermore go some way to describing observed features of genetic, ecological and linguistic systems. Stochastic Models of Evolution in Genetics, Ecology and Linguistics 2 1.
The coalescent in an island model of population subdivision with variation among demes. Theor Popul Biol 2001
"... A simple genealogical structure is found for a general finite island model of population subdivision. The model allows for variation in the sizes of demes, in contributions to the migrant pool, and in the fraction of each deme that is replaced by migrants every generation. The ancestry of a sample o ..."
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Cited by 18 (0 self)
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A simple genealogical structure is found for a general finite island model of population subdivision. The model allows for variation in the sizes of demes, in contributions to the migrant pool, and in the fraction of each deme that is replaced by migrants every generation. The ancestry of a sample of nonrecombining DNA sequences has a simple structure when the sample size is much smaller than the total number of demes in the population. This allows an expression for the probability distribution of the number of segregating sites in the sample to be derived under the infinitesites mutation model. It also yields easily computed estimators of the migration parameter for each deme in a multideme sample. The genealogical process is such that the lineages ancestral to the sample tend to accumulate in demes with low migration rates and or which contribute disproportionately to the migrant pool. In addition, common ancestor or coalescent events tend to occur in demes of small size. This provides a framework for understanding the determinants of the effective size of the population, and leads to an expression for the probability that the root of a genealogy occurs in a particular geographic region, or among a particular set of demes.] 2001 Academic Press 1.
Planque B: Hydrothermalvent alvinellid polychaete dispersal in the eastern Pacific. 2. A metapopulation model based on habitat shifts. Evolution
, 1999
"... Deepsea hydrothermalvent habitats are typically linear, discontinuous, and shortlived. Some of the vent fauna such as the endemic polychaete family Alvinellidae are thought to lack a planktotrophic larval stage and therefore not to broadcastrelease their offspring. The genetic evidence points to ..."
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Cited by 17 (2 self)
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Deepsea hydrothermalvent habitats are typically linear, discontinuous, and shortlived. Some of the vent fauna such as the endemic polychaete family Alvinellidae are thought to lack a planktotrophic larval stage and therefore not to broadcastrelease their offspring. The genetic evidence points to exchanges on a scale that seems to contradict this type of reproductive pattern. However, the rift valley may topographically rectify the bottom currents, thereby facilitating the dispersal of propagules between active vent sites separated in some cases by 10s of kilometers or more along the ridge axis. A propagule flux model based on a matrix OF intersite distances, longterm currentmete] data, and information on the biology and ecology of Alvinellidae was developed to test this hypothesis. Calculations of the number of migrants exchanged between two populations per generation (N,,,) allowed comparisons with estimates obtained from genetic studies. N,,, displays a logarithmic decrease with increasing dispersal duration and reaches the critical value of 1 after 8 d when the propagule flux model was run in standard conditions. At most, propagule traveling time cannot reasonably exceed 1530 d, according to the model, whereas reported distances between sites would require longer lasting dispersal abilities. Two nonexclusive explanations are proposed. First, some aspects of the biology of Alvinellidae have been overlooked and longdistance dispersal does occur. Second, such dispersal never occurs in Alvinellidae, but the spatialtemporal dynamics of vent sites over geological timescales
The Evolution of Sexual Selection and Female Choice
 Toward a Practice of Autonomous Systems: Proceedings of the First European Conference on Artificial Life
, 1992
"... One of the main goals of the researchers in the field of artificial life is to increase our understanding of natural life. We are particularly interested in using artificial life to study issues in natural evolution and population genetics. Current tools of population geneticists and evolutionary bi ..."
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Cited by 16 (0 self)
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One of the main goals of the researchers in the field of artificial life is to increase our understanding of natural life. We are particularly interested in using artificial life to study issues in natural evolution and population genetics. Current tools of population geneticists and evolutionary biologists are inherently limited. For example, only the simplest genetic systems can be completely understood analytically, the fossil record is incomplete and difficult to interpret, and evolutionary experiments in the laboratory or field are usually limited to at most a few dozen generations and are difficult to control and repeat. Simulated evolution makes it possible to study evolutionary systems over thousands of generations (macroevolution) and on large populations. In this paper, we demonstrate that microanalytic (lowlevel) computer simulations of evolving populations of artificial organisms can usefully augment analytic population genetics models. We begin with a simple analytical m...
Patterns of Parapatric Speciation
, 1999
"... .{ Geographic variation may ultimately lead to the splitting of a subdivided population into reproductively isolated units in spite of migration. Here, we consider how the waiting time until the rst split and its location depend on dierent evolutionary factors including mutation, migration, random g ..."
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Cited by 16 (2 self)
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.{ Geographic variation may ultimately lead to the splitting of a subdivided population into reproductively isolated units in spite of migration. Here, we consider how the waiting time until the rst split and its location depend on dierent evolutionary factors including mutation, migration, random genetic drift, genetic architecture and the geometric structure of the habitat. We perform largescale individualbased simulations using a simple model of reproductive isolation based on a classical view that reproductive isolation evolves as a byproduct of genetic divergence. We show that rapid parapatric speciation on the time scale of a few hundred to a few thousand generations is plausible even when neighboring subpopulations exchange several individuals each generation. Divergent selection for local adaptation is not required for rapid speciation. Our results substantiates the claims that species with smaller range sizes (which are characterized by smaller local densities and reduce...