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1,347
On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas
 Wireless Personal Communications
, 1998
"... Abstract. This paper is motivated by the need for fundamental understanding of ultimate limits of bandwidth efficient delivery of higher bitrates in digital wireless communications and to also begin to look into how these limits might be approached. We examine exploitation of multielement array (M ..."
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Cited by 2363 (14 self)
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Abstract. This paper is motivated by the need for fundamental understanding of ultimate limits of bandwidth efficient delivery of higher bitrates in digital wireless communications and to also begin to look into how these limits might be approached. We examine exploitation of multielement array (MEA) technology, that is processing the spatial dimension (not just the time dimension) to improve wireless capacities in certain applications. Specifically, we present some basic information theory results that promise great advantages of using MEAs in wireless LANs and building to building wireless communication links. We explore the important case when the channel characteristic is not available at the transmitter but the receiver knows (tracks) the characteristic which is subject to Rayleigh fading. Fixing the overall transmitted power, we express the capacity offered by MEA technology and we see how the capacity scales with increasing SNR for a large but practical number, n, of antenna elements at both transmitter and receiver. We investigate the case of independent Rayleigh faded paths between antenna elements and find that with high probability extraordinary capacity is available. Compared to the baseline n = 1 case, which by Shannon’s classical formula scales as one more bit/cycle for every 3 dB of signaltonoise ratio (SNR) increase, remarkably with MEAs, the scaling is almost like n more bits/cycle for each 3 dB increase in SNR. To illustrate how great this capacity is, even for small n, take the cases n = 2, 4 and 16 at an average received SNR of 21 dB. For over 99%
Quantization
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 1998
"... The history of the theory and practice of quantization dates to 1948, although similar ideas had appeared in the literature as long ago as 1898. The fundamental role of quantization in modulation and analogtodigital conversion was first recognized during the early development of pulsecode modula ..."
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Cited by 877 (12 self)
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The history of the theory and practice of quantization dates to 1948, although similar ideas had appeared in the literature as long ago as 1898. The fundamental role of quantization in modulation and analogtodigital conversion was first recognized during the early development of pulsecode modulation systems, especially in the 1948 paper of Oliver, Pierce, and Shannon. Also in 1948, Bennett published the first highresolution analysis of quantization and an exact analysis of quantization noise for Gaussian processes, and Shannon published the beginnings of rate distortion theory, which would provide a theory for quantization as analogtodigital conversion and as data compression. Beginning with these three papers of fifty years ago, we trace the history of quantization from its origins through this decade, and we survey the fundamentals of the theory and many of the popular and promising techniques for quantization.
Cooperative strategies and capacity theorems for relay networks
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2005
"... Abstract—Coding strategies that exploit node cooperation are developed for relay networks. Two basic schemes are studied: the relays decodeandforward the source message to the destination, or they compressandforward their channel outputs to the destination. The decodeandforward scheme is a va ..."
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Cited by 733 (19 self)
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Abstract—Coding strategies that exploit node cooperation are developed for relay networks. Two basic schemes are studied: the relays decodeandforward the source message to the destination, or they compressandforward their channel outputs to the destination. The decodeandforward scheme is a variant of multihopping, but in addition to having the relays successively decode the message, the transmitters cooperate and each receiver uses several or all of its past channel output blocks to decode. For the compressandforward scheme, the relays take advantage of the statistical dependence between their channel outputs and the destination’s channel output. The strategies are applied to wireless channels, and it is shown that decodeandforward achieves the ergodic capacity with phase fading if phase information is available only locally, and if the relays are near the source node. The ergodic capacity coincides with the rate of a distributed antenna array with full cooperation even though the transmitting antennas are not colocated. The capacity results generalize broadly, including to multiantenna transmission with Rayleigh fading, singlebounce fading, certain quasistatic fading problems, cases where partial channel knowledge is available at the transmitters, and cases where local user cooperation is permitted. The results further extend to multisource and multidestination networks such as multiaccess and broadcast relay channels. Index Terms—Antenna arrays, capacity, coding, multiuser channels, relay channels. I.
Capacity of Fading Channels with Channel Side Information
, 1997
"... We obtain the Shannon capacity of a fading channel with channel side information at the transmitter and receiver, and at the receiver alone. The optimal power adaptation in the former case is "waterpouring" in time, analogous to waterpouring in frequency for timeinvariant frequencysele ..."
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Cited by 579 (23 self)
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We obtain the Shannon capacity of a fading channel with channel side information at the transmitter and receiver, and at the receiver alone. The optimal power adaptation in the former case is "waterpouring" in time, analogous to waterpouring in frequency for timeinvariant frequencyselective fading channels. Inverting the channel results in a large capacity penalty in severe fading.
Fading Channels: InformationTheoretic And Communications Aspects
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1998
"... In this paper we review the most peculiar and interesting informationtheoretic and communications features of fading channels. We first describe the statistical models of fading channels which are frequently used in the analysis and design of communication systems. Next, we focus on the information ..."
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Cited by 416 (3 self)
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In this paper we review the most peculiar and interesting informationtheoretic and communications features of fading channels. We first describe the statistical models of fading channels which are frequently used in the analysis and design of communication systems. Next, we focus on the information theory of fading channels, by emphasizing capacity as the most important performance measure. Both singleuser and multiuser transmission are examined. Further, we describe how the structure of fading channels impacts code design, and finally overview equalization of fading multipath channels.
A Parallel Repetition Theorem
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1998
"... We show that a parallel repetition of any twoprover oneround proof system (MIP(2, 1)) decreases the probability of error at an exponential rate. No constructive bound was previously known. The constant in the exponent (in our analysis) depends only on the original probability of error and on the t ..."
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Cited by 378 (9 self)
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We show that a parallel repetition of any twoprover oneround proof system (MIP(2, 1)) decreases the probability of error at an exponential rate. No constructive bound was previously known. The constant in the exponent (in our analysis) depends only on the original probability of error and on the total number of possible answers of the two provers. The dependency on the total number of possible answers is logarithmic, which was recently proved to be almost the best possible [U. Feige and O. Verbitsky, Proc. 11th Annual IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, 1996, pp. 7076].
Generalized privacy amplification
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 1995
"... Abstract This paper provides a general treatment of privacy amplification by public discussion, a concept introduced by Bennett, Brassard, and Robert for a special scenario. Privacy amplification is a process that allows two parties to distill a secret key from a common random variable about which ..."
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Cited by 329 (19 self)
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Abstract This paper provides a general treatment of privacy amplification by public discussion, a concept introduced by Bennett, Brassard, and Robert for a special scenario. Privacy amplification is a process that allows two parties to distill a secret key from a common random variable about which an eavesdropper has partial information. The two parties generally know nothing about the eavesdropper’s information except that it satisfies a certain constraint. The results have applications to unconditionally secure secretkey agreement protocols and quantum cryptography, and they yield results on wiretap and broadcast channels for a considerably strengthened definition of secrecy capacity. Index Terms Cryptography, secretkey agreement, unconditional security, privacy amplification, wiretap channel, secrecy capacity, RCnyi entropy, universal hashing, quantum cryptography. I.
Common Randomness in Information Theory and Cryptography Part II: CR capacity
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 1993
"... The CR capacity of a twoteminal model is defined as the maximum rate of common randomness that the terminals can generate using resources specified by the given model. We determine CR capacity for several models, including those whose statistics depend on unknown parameters. The CR capacity is show ..."
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Cited by 311 (13 self)
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The CR capacity of a twoteminal model is defined as the maximum rate of common randomness that the terminals can generate using resources specified by the given model. We determine CR capacity for several models, including those whose statistics depend on unknown parameters. The CR capacity is shown to be achievable robustly, by common randomness of nearly uniform distribution no matter what the unknown parameters are. Our CR capacity results are relevant for the problem of identification capacity, and also yield a new result on the regular (transmission) capacity of arbitrarily varying channels with feedback. Key words: common randomness, identification capacity, correlated sources, arbitrarily varying channel, feedback, randomization. I. Csisz'ar was partially supported by the Hungarian National Foundation for Scientific Research, Grant T16386. 1 Introduction Suppose two terminals, called Terminal X and Terminal Y, have resources such as access to side information and communica...
An InformationTheoretic Model for Steganography
, 1998
"... An informationtheoretic model for steganography with passive adversaries is proposed. The adversary's task of distinguishing between an innocentcover message C and a modified message S containing a secret part is interpreted as a hypothesis testing problem. The security of a steganographic sys ..."
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Cited by 267 (3 self)
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An informationtheoretic model for steganography with passive adversaries is proposed. The adversary's task of distinguishing between an innocentcover message C and a modified message S containing a secret part is interpreted as a hypothesis testing problem. The security of a steganographic system is quantified in terms of the relative entropy (or discrimination) between PC and PS . Several secure steganographic schemes are presented in this model; one of them is a universal information hiding scheme based on universal data compression techniques that requires no knowledge of the covertext statistics.
Achievable Rates in Cognitive Radio Channels
 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
, 2006
"... Cognitive radio promises a low cost, highly flexible alternative to the classic single frequency band, single protocol wireless device. By sensing and adapting to its environment, such a device is able to fill voids in the wireless spectrum and dramatically increase spectral efficiency. In this pape ..."
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Cited by 265 (46 self)
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Cognitive radio promises a low cost, highly flexible alternative to the classic single frequency band, single protocol wireless device. By sensing and adapting to its environment, such a device is able to fill voids in the wireless spectrum and dramatically increase spectral efficiency. In this paper, the cognitive radio channel is defined as an ntransmitter, mreceiver interference channel in which sender i obtains the messages senders 1 through i − 1 plan to transmit. The two sender, two receiver case is considered. In this scenario, one user, a cognitive radio, obtains (genie assisted, or causally) knowledge of the data to be transmitted by the other user. The cognitive radio may then simultaneously transmit over the same channel, as opposed to waiting for an idle channel as in a traditional cognitive radio channel protocol. Dirtypaper coding and ideas from achievable region constructions for the interference channel are used, and an achievable region for the cognitive radio channel is computed. It is shown that in the Gaussian case, the described achievable region approaches the upper bounds provided by the 2×2 Gaussian MIMO broadcast channel, and an interferencefree channel. Results are extended to the case in which the message is causally obtained.