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219
Region Filling and Object Removal by ExemplarBased Image Inpainting
, 2004
"... A new algorithm is proposed for removing large objects from digital images. The challenge is to fill in the hole that is left behind in a visually plausible way. In the past, this problem has been addressed by two classes of algorithms: 1) “texture synthesis” algorithms for generating large image re ..."
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Cited by 356 (1 self)
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A new algorithm is proposed for removing large objects from digital images. The challenge is to fill in the hole that is left behind in a visually plausible way. In the past, this problem has been addressed by two classes of algorithms: 1) “texture synthesis” algorithms for generating large image regions from sample textures and 2) “inpainting ” techniques for filling in small image gaps. The former has been demonstrated for “textures”—repeating twodimensional patterns with some stochasticity; the latter focus on linear “structures ” which can be thought of as onedimensional patterns, such as lines and object contours. This paper presents a novel and efficient algorithm that combines the advantages of these two approaches. We first note that exemplarbased texture synthesis contains the essential process required to replicate both texture and structure; the success of structure propagation, however, is highly dependent on the order in which the filling proceeds. We propose a bestfirst algorithm in which the confidence in the synthesized pixel values is propagated in a manner similar to the propagation of information in inpainting. The actual color values are computed using exemplarbased synthesis. In this paper, the simultaneous propagation of texture and structure information is achieved by a single, efficient algorithm. Computational efficiency is achieved by a blockbased sampling process. A number of examples on real and synthetic images demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in removing large occluding objects, as well as thin scratches. Robustness with respect to the shape of the manually selected target region is also demonstrated. Our results compare favorably to those obtained by existing techniques.
Seam carving for contentaware image resizing
 ACM Trans. Graph
, 2007
"... Figure 1: A seam is a connected path of low energy pixels in an image. On the left is the original image with one horizontal and one vertical seam. In the middle the energy function used in this example is shown (the magnitude of the gradient), along with the vertical and horizontal path maps used t ..."
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Cited by 316 (11 self)
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Figure 1: A seam is a connected path of low energy pixels in an image. On the left is the original image with one horizontal and one vertical seam. In the middle the energy function used in this example is shown (the magnitude of the gradient), along with the vertical and horizontal path maps used to calculate the seams. By automatically carving out seams to reduce image size, and inserting seams to extend it, we achieve contentaware resizing. The example on the top right shows our result of extending in one dimension and reducing in the other, compared to standard scaling on the bottom right. Effective resizing of images should not only use geometric constraints, but consider the image content as well. We present a simple image operator called seam carving that supports contentaware image resizing for both reduction and expansion. A seam is an optimal 8connected path of pixels on a single image from top to bottom, or left to right, where optimality is defined by an image energy function. By repeatedly carving out or inserting seams in one direction we can change the aspect ratio of an image. By applying these operators in both directions we can retarget the image to a new size. The selection and order of seams protect the content of the image, as defined by the energy function. Seam carving can also be used for image content enhancement and object removal. We support various visual saliency measures for defining the energy of an image, and can also include user input to guide the process. By storing the order of seams in an image we create multisize images, that are able to continuously change in real time to fit a given size.
Image Decomposition via the Combination of Sparse Representations and a Variational Approach
 IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
, 2004
"... The separation of image content into semantic parts plays a vital role in applications such as compression, enhancement, restoration, and more. In recent years several pioneering works suggested such a separation based on variational formulation, and others using independent component analysis and s ..."
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Cited by 218 (29 self)
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The separation of image content into semantic parts plays a vital role in applications such as compression, enhancement, restoration, and more. In recent years several pioneering works suggested such a separation based on variational formulation, and others using independent component analysis and sparsity. This paper presents a novel method for separating images into texture and piecewise smooth (cartoon) parts, exploiting both the variational and the sparsity mechanisms. The method combines the Basis Pursuit Denoising (BPDN) algorithm and the TotalVariation (TV) regularization scheme. The basic idea presented in this paper is the use of two appropriate dictionaries, one for the representation of textures, and the other for the natural scene parts, assumed to be piecewisesmooth. Both dictionaries are chosen such that they lead to sparse representations over one type of imagecontent (either texture or piecewise smooth). The use of the BPDN with the two augmented dictionaries leads to the desired separation, along with noise removal as a byproduct. As the need to choose proper dictionaries is generally hard, a TV regularization is employed to better direct the separation process and reduce ringing artifacts. We present a highly e#cient numerical scheme to solve the combined optimization problem posed in our model, and show several experimental results that validate the algorithm's performance.
Image completion with structure propagation
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2005
"... two intersecting lines (green) specified by the user, (c) intermediate result after propagating structure and texture information along the userspecified lines, and (d) final result after filling in the remaining unknown regions by texture propagation. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach t ..."
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Cited by 137 (4 self)
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two intersecting lines (green) specified by the user, (c) intermediate result after propagating structure and texture information along the userspecified lines, and (d) final result after filling in the remaining unknown regions by texture propagation. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to image completion, which we call structure propagation. In our system, the user manually specifies important missing structure information by extending a few curves or line segments from the known to the unknown regions. Our approach synthesizes image patches along these userspecified curves in the unknown region using patches selected around the curves in the known region. Structure propagation is formulated as a global optimization problem by enforcing structure and consistency constraints. If only a single curve is specified, structure propagation is solved using Dynamic Programming. When multiple intersecting curves are specified, we adopt the Belief Propagation algorithm to find the optimal patches. After completing structure propagation, we fill in the remaining unknown regions using patchbased texture synthesis. We show that our approach works well on a number of examples that are challenging to stateoftheart techniques.
Fragmentbased image completion
 ACM TRANS. ON GRAPHICS. SPECIAL ISSUE: PROC. OF ACM SIGGRAPH
, 2003
"... We present a new method for completing missing parts caused by the removal of foreground or background elements from an image. Our goal is to synthesize a complete, visually plausible and coherent image. The visible parts of the image serve as a training set to infer the unknown parts. Our method it ..."
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Cited by 135 (4 self)
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We present a new method for completing missing parts caused by the removal of foreground or background elements from an image. Our goal is to synthesize a complete, visually plausible and coherent image. The visible parts of the image serve as a training set to infer the unknown parts. Our method iteratively approximates the unknown regions and composites adaptive image fragments into the image. Values of an inverse matte are used to compute a confidence map and a level set that direct an incremental traversal within the unknown area from high to low confidence. In each step, guided by a fast smooth approximation, an image fragment is selected from the most similar and frequent examples. As the selected fragments are composited, their likelihood increases along with the mean confidence of the image, until reaching a complete image. We demonstrate our method by completion of photographs and paintings.
Split Bregman methods and frame based image restoration, submitted
, 2009
"... Abstract. Split Bregman methods introduced in [47] have been demonstrated to be efficient tools to solve total variation (TV) norm minimization problems, which arise from partial differential equation based image restoration such as image denoising and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reconstruction ..."
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Cited by 103 (27 self)
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Abstract. Split Bregman methods introduced in [47] have been demonstrated to be efficient tools to solve total variation (TV) norm minimization problems, which arise from partial differential equation based image restoration such as image denoising and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reconstruction from sparse samples. In this paper, we prove the convergence of the split Bregman iterations, where the number of inner iterations is fixed to be one. Furthermore, we show that these split Bregman iterations can be used to solve minimization problems arising from the analysis based approach for image restoration in the literature. We apply these split Bregman iterations to the analysis based image restoration approach whose analysis operator is derived from tight framelets constructed in [59]. This gives a set of new frame based image restoration algorithms that cover several topics in image restorations, such as image denoising, deblurring, inpainting and cartoontexture image decomposition. Several numerical simulation results are provided. 1. Introduction. Image
A frameletbased image inpainting algorithm
 Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis
"... Abstract. Image inpainting is a fundamental problem in image processing and has many applications. Motivated by the recent tight frame based methods on image restoration in either the image or the transform domain, we propose an iterative tight frame algorithm for image inpainting. We consider the c ..."
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Cited by 90 (40 self)
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Abstract. Image inpainting is a fundamental problem in image processing and has many applications. Motivated by the recent tight frame based methods on image restoration in either the image or the transform domain, we propose an iterative tight frame algorithm for image inpainting. We consider the convergence of this frameletbased algorithm by interpreting it as an iteration for minimizing a special functional. The proof of the convergence is under the framework of convex analysis and optimization theory. We also discuss the relationship of our method with other waveletbased methods. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Key words. Tight frame, inpainting, convex analysis 1. Introduction. The problem of inpainting [2] occurs when part of the pixel data in a picture is missing or overwritten by other means. This arises for example in restoring ancient drawings, where a portion of the picture is missing or damaged due to aging or scratch; or when an image is transmitted through a noisy channel. The task of inpainting is to recover the missing region from the incomplete data observed. Ideally, the restored image should possess shapes and patterns consistent
Nonlinear Approximation Based Image Recovery Using Adaptive Sparse Reconstructions and Iterated Denoising: Part I  Theory
 IEEE Trans. Image Process
, 2004
"... We study the robust estimation of missing regions in images and video using adaptive, sparse reconstructions. Our primary application is on missing regions of pixels containing textures, edges, and other image features that are not readily handled by prevalent estimation and recovery algorithms. ..."
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Cited by 64 (7 self)
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We study the robust estimation of missing regions in images and video using adaptive, sparse reconstructions. Our primary application is on missing regions of pixels containing textures, edges, and other image features that are not readily handled by prevalent estimation and recovery algorithms. We assume that we are given a linear transform that is expected to provide sparse decompositions over missing regions such that a portion of the transform coe#cients over missing regions are zero or close to zero. We adaptively determine these small magnitude coe#cients through thresholding, establish sparsity constraints, and estimate missing regions in images using information surrounding these regions. Unlike prevalent algorithms, our approach does not necessitate any complex preconditioning, segmentation, or edge detection steps, and it can be written as a sequence of denoising operations. We show that the region types we can e#ectively estimate in a mean squared error sense are those for which the given transform provides a close approximation using sparse nonlinear approximants. We show the nature of the constructed estimators and how these estimators relate to the utilized transform and its sparsity over regions of interest. The developed estimation framework is general, and can readily be applied to nonstationary signals with a suitable choice of linear transforms. Part I discusses fundamental issues, and Part II is devoted to adaptive algorithms with extensive simulation examples that demonstrate the power of the proposed techniques.
Learning How to Inpaint from Global Image Statistics
"... Inpainting is the problem of fillingin holes in images. Considerable progress has been made by techniques that use the immediate boundary of the hole and some prior information on images to solve this problem. These algorithms successfully solve the local inpainting problem but they must, by defini ..."
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Cited by 64 (1 self)
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Inpainting is the problem of fillingin holes in images. Considerable progress has been made by techniques that use the immediate boundary of the hole and some prior information on images to solve this problem. These algorithms successfully solve the local inpainting problem but they must, by definition, give the same completion to any two holes that have the same boundary, even when the rest of the image is vastly different.