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327
Markov Logic Networks
 MACHINE LEARNING
, 2006
"... We propose a simple approach to combining firstorder logic and probabilistic graphical models in a single representation. A Markov logic network (MLN) is a firstorder knowledge base with a weight attached to each formula (or clause). Together with a set of constants representing objects in the ..."
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Cited by 816 (39 self)
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We propose a simple approach to combining firstorder logic and probabilistic graphical models in a single representation. A Markov logic network (MLN) is a firstorder knowledge base with a weight attached to each formula (or clause). Together with a set of constants representing objects in the domain, it specifies a ground Markov network containing one feature for each possible grounding of a firstorder formula in the KB, with the corresponding weight. Inference in MLNs is performed by MCMC over the minimal subset of the ground network required for answering the query. Weights are efficiently learned from relational databases by iteratively optimizing a pseudolikelihood measure. Optionally, additional clauses are learned using inductive logic programming techniques. Experiments with a realworld database and knowledge base in a university domain illustrate the promise of this approach.
Abduction in Logic Programming
"... Abduction in Logic Programming started in the late 80s, early 90s, in an attempt to extend logic programming into a framework suitable for a variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of Computer Science. This paper aims to chart out the main developments of the field over th ..."
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Cited by 624 (77 self)
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Abduction in Logic Programming started in the late 80s, early 90s, in an attempt to extend logic programming into a framework suitable for a variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of Computer Science. This paper aims to chart out the main developments of the field over the last ten years and to take a critical view of these developments from several perspectives: logical, epistemological, computational and suitability to application. The paper attempts to expose some of the challenges and prospects for the further development of the field.
A New Model of Plan Recognition
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1999
"... We present a new abductive, probabilistic theory of plan recognition. This model differs from previous theories in being centered around a model of plan execution: most previous methods have been based on plans as formal objects or on rules describing the recognition process. We show that our ..."
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Cited by 362 (15 self)
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We present a new abductive, probabilistic theory of plan recognition. This model differs from previous theories in being centered around a model of plan execution: most previous methods have been based on plans as formal objects or on rules describing the recognition process. We show that our new model accounts for phenomena omitted from most previous plan recognition theories: notably the cumulative effect of a sequence of observations of partiallyordered, interleaved plans and the effect of context on plan adoption. The model also supports inferences about the evolution of plan execution in situations where another agent intervenes in plan execution. This facility provides support for using plan recognition to build systems that will intelligently assist a user. 1
Objectoriented Bayesian networks.
 In Proc. UAI97,
, 1997
"... Abstract Bayesian networks provide a modeling language and associated inference algorithm for stochastic domains. They have been successfully applied in a variety of mediumscale applications. However, when faced with a large complex domain, the task of modeling using Bayesian networks begins to re ..."
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Cited by 218 (9 self)
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Abstract Bayesian networks provide a modeling language and associated inference algorithm for stochastic domains. They have been successfully applied in a variety of mediumscale applications. However, when faced with a large complex domain, the task of modeling using Bayesian networks begins to resemble the task of pro gramming using logical circuits. In this paper, we de scribe an objectoriented Bayesian network (OOBN) lan guage, which allows complex domains to be described in terms of interrelated objects. We use a Bayesian net work fragment to describe the probabilistic relations be tween the attributes of an object. These attributes can themsel ves be objects, providing a natural framework for encoding partof hierarchies. Classes are used to pro vide a reusable probabilistic model which can be applied to multiple similar objects. Classes also support inher itance of model fragments from a class to a subclass, allowing the common aspects of related classes to be defined only once. Our language has clear declarative semantics: an OOBN can be interpreted as a stochas tic functional program, so that it uniquely specifies a probabilistic model. We provide an inference algorithm for OOBNs, and show that much of the structural infor mation encoded by an OOBNparticularly the encap sulation of variables within an object and the reuse of model fragments in different contextscan also be used to speed up the inference process.
Probabilistic FrameBased Systems
 In Proc. AAAI
, 1998
"... Two of the most important threads of work in knowledge representation today are framebased representation systems (FRS's) and Bayesian networks (BNs). FRS's provide an excellent representation for the organizational structure of large complex domains, but their applicability is limited be ..."
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Cited by 212 (16 self)
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Two of the most important threads of work in knowledge representation today are framebased representation systems (FRS's) and Bayesian networks (BNs). FRS's provide an excellent representation for the organizational structure of large complex domains, but their applicability is limited because of their inability to deal with uncertainty and noise. BNs provide an intuitive and coherent probabilistic representation of our uncertainty, but are very limited in their ability to handle complex structured domains. In this paper, we provide a language that cleanly integrates these approaches, preserving the advantages of both. Our approach allows us to provide natural and compact definitions of probability models for a class, in a way that is local to the class frame. These models can be instantiated for any set of interconnected instances, resulting in a coherent probability distribution over the instance properties. Our language also allows us to represent important types of uncertainty tha...
Probabilistic Algorithms in Robotics
 AI Magazine vol
"... This article describes a methodology for programming robots known as probabilistic robotics. The probabilistic paradigm pays tribute to the inherent uncertainty in robot perception, relying on explicit representations of uncertainty when determining what to do. This article surveys some of the progr ..."
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Cited by 199 (6 self)
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This article describes a methodology for programming robots known as probabilistic robotics. The probabilistic paradigm pays tribute to the inherent uncertainty in robot perception, relying on explicit representations of uncertainty when determining what to do. This article surveys some of the progress in the field, using indepth examples to illustrate some of the nuts and bolts of the basic approach. Our central conjecture is that the probabilistic approach to robotics scales better to complex realworld applications than approaches that ignore a robot’s uncertainty. 1
Stochastic Dynamic Programming with Factored Representations
, 1997
"... Markov decision processes(MDPs) have proven to be popular models for decisiontheoretic planning, but standard dynamic programming algorithms for solving MDPs rely on explicit, statebased specifications and computations. To alleviate the combinatorial problems associated with such methods, we prop ..."
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Cited by 189 (10 self)
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Markov decision processes(MDPs) have proven to be popular models for decisiontheoretic planning, but standard dynamic programming algorithms for solving MDPs rely on explicit, statebased specifications and computations. To alleviate the combinatorial problems associated with such methods, we propose new representational and computational techniques for MDPs that exploit certain types of problem structure. We use dynamic Bayesian networks (with decision trees representing the local families of conditional probability distributions) to represent stochastic actions in an MDP, together with a decisiontree representation of rewards. Based on this representation, we develop versions of standard dynamic programming algorithms that directly manipulate decisiontree representations of policies and value functions. This generally obviates the need for statebystate computation, aggregating states at the leaves of these trees and requiring computations only for each aggregate state. The key to these algorithms is a decisiontheoretic generalization of classic regression analysis, in which we determine the features relevant to predicting expected value. We demonstrate the method empirically on several planning problems,
Exploiting Causal Independence in Bayesian Network Inference
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1996
"... A new method is proposed for exploiting causal independencies in exact Bayesian network inference. ..."
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Cited by 181 (10 self)
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A new method is proposed for exploiting causal independencies in exact Bayesian network inference.
The Independent Choice Logic for modelling multiple agents under uncertainty
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1997
"... Inspired by game theory representations, Bayesian networks, influence diagrams, structured Markov decision process models, logic programming, and work in dynamical systems, the independent choice logic (ICL) is a semantic framework that allows for independent choices (made by various agents, includi ..."
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Cited by 173 (10 self)
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Inspired by game theory representations, Bayesian networks, influence diagrams, structured Markov decision process models, logic programming, and work in dynamical systems, the independent choice logic (ICL) is a semantic framework that allows for independent choices (made by various agents, including nature) and a logic program that gives the consequence of choices. This representation can be used as a specification for agents that act in a world, make observations of that world and have memory, as well as a modelling tool for dynamic environments with uncertainty. The rules specify the consequences of an action, what can be sensed and the utility of outcomes. This paper presents a possibleworlds semantics for ICL, and shows how to embed influence diagrams, structured Markov decision processes, and both the strategic (normal) form and extensive (gametree) form of games within the Thanks to Craig Boutilier and Holger Hoos for detailed comments on this paper. This work was supporte...
ProbLog: a probabilistic Prolog and its application in link discovery
 In Proceedings of 20th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 2007
"... We introduce ProbLog, a probabilistic extension of Prolog. A ProbLog program defines a distribution over logic programs by specifying for each clause the probability that it belongs to a randomly sampled program, and these probabilities are mutually independent. The semantics of ProbLog is then defi ..."
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Cited by 144 (27 self)
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We introduce ProbLog, a probabilistic extension of Prolog. A ProbLog program defines a distribution over logic programs by specifying for each clause the probability that it belongs to a randomly sampled program, and these probabilities are mutually independent. The semantics of ProbLog is then defined by the success probability of a query, which corresponds to the probability that the query succeeds in a randomly sampled program. The key contribution of this paper is the introduction of an effective solver for computing success probabilities. It essentially combines SLDresolution with methods for computing the probability of Boolean formulae. Our implementation further employs an approximation algorithm that combines iterative deepening with binary decision diagrams. We report on experiments in the context of discovering links in real biological networks, a demonstration of the practical usefulness of the approach. 1