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The Independent Choice Logic for modelling multiple agents under uncertainty
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1997
"... Inspired by game theory representations, Bayesian networks, influence diagrams, structured Markov decision process models, logic programming, and work in dynamical systems, the independent choice logic (ICL) is a semantic framework that allows for independent choices (made by various agents, includi ..."
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Cited by 178 (10 self)
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Inspired by game theory representations, Bayesian networks, influence diagrams, structured Markov decision process models, logic programming, and work in dynamical systems, the independent choice logic (ICL) is a semantic framework that allows for independent choices (made by various agents, including nature) and a logic program that gives the consequence of choices. This representation can be used as a specification for agents that act in a world, make observations of that world and have memory, as well as a modelling tool for dynamic environments with uncertainty. The rules specify the consequences of an action, what can be sensed and the utility of outcomes. This paper presents a possibleworlds semantics for ICL, and shows how to embed influence diagrams, structured Markov decision processes, and both the strategic (normal) form and extensive (gametree) form of games within the Thanks to Craig Boutilier and Holger Hoos for detailed comments on this paper. This work was supporte...
Formalizing action and change in modal logic I: the frame problem
, 1999
"... We present the basic framework of a logic of actions and plans defined in terms of modal logic combined with a notion of dependence. The latter is used as a weak causal connection between actions and literals. In this paper we focus on the frame problem and demonstrate how it can be solved in our fr ..."
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Cited by 57 (15 self)
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We present the basic framework of a logic of actions and plans defined in terms of modal logic combined with a notion of dependence. The latter is used as a weak causal connection between actions and literals. In this paper we focus on the frame problem and demonstrate how it can be solved in our framework in a simple and monotonic way. We give the semantics, and associate an axiomatics and a decision procedure to it. The decision procedure is based on a sound and complete tableau method with single step rules to treat dependence. We show how it can be used to generate plans. Our solution is formally assessed by a translation of Gelfond and Lifschitz' logic A. We briefly sketch the second part of the paper, showing how we can go beyond A by some examples involving nondeterminism and ramifications.
Embracing Causality in Specifying the Indeterminate Effects of Actions
, 1996
"... This paper makes the following two contributions to formal theories of actions: Showing that a causal minimization framework can be used effectively to specify the effects of indeterminate actions; and showing that for certain classes of such actions, regression, an effective computational mechanism ..."
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Cited by 52 (2 self)
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This paper makes the following two contributions to formal theories of actions: Showing that a causal minimization framework can be used effectively to specify the effects of indeterminate actions; and showing that for certain classes of such actions, regression, an effective computational mechanism, can be used to reason about them. Introduction Much recent work on theories of actions has concentrated on primitive, determinate actions. In this paper, we pose ourselves the problem of specifying directly the effects of indeterminate actions, 1 like we do for the primitive, determinate ones. There are several reasons why we think this is an important problem. First of all, there are actions whose effects, when described at a natural level, are indeterminate. Secondly, one can argue that there is no absolute defining line between determinate and indeterminate actions. The differences have a lot to do with the levels of descriptions. The effects of an action may be determinate at one l...
Two Components of An Action Language
 Annals of Math and AI
, 1996
"... Some of the recent work on representing action makes use of highlevel action languages. In this paper we show that an action language can be represented as the sum of two distinct parts: an "action description language" and an "action query language." A set of propositions in an ..."
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Cited by 20 (5 self)
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Some of the recent work on representing action makes use of highlevel action languages. In this paper we show that an action language can be represented as the sum of two distinct parts: an "action description language" and an "action query language." A set of propositions in an action description language describes the effects of actions on states. Mathematically, it defines a transition system of the kind familiar from the theory of finite automata. An action query language serves for expressing properties of paths in a given transition system. We define the general concepts of a transition system, of an action description language and of an action query language, give a series of examples of languages of both kinds, and show how to combine a description language and a query language into one. This construction makes it possible to design the two components of an action language independently, which leads to the simplification and clarification of the theory of actions. 1 Introducti...
The Frame Problem and Bayesian Network Action Representations
, 1996
"... . We examine a number of techniques for representing actions with stochastic effects using Bayesian networks and influence diagrams. We compare these techniques according to ease of specification and size of the representation required for the complete specification of the dynamics of a particular s ..."
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Cited by 20 (8 self)
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. We examine a number of techniques for representing actions with stochastic effects using Bayesian networks and influence diagrams. We compare these techniques according to ease of specification and size of the representation required for the complete specification of the dynamics of a particular system, paying particular attention the role of persistence relationships. We precisely characterize two components of the frame problem for Bayes nets and stochastic actions, propose several ways to deal with these problems, and compare our solutions with Reiter 's solution to the frame problem for the situation calculus. The result is a set of techniques that permit both ease of specification and compact representation of probabilistic system dynamics that is of comparable size (and timbre) to Reiter's representation (i.e., with no explicit frame axioms). 1 Introduction Reasoning about action has been a central problem in artificial intelligence since its inception. Since the earliest att...
Planning in Description Logics: Deduction versus Satisfiability Testing
 In European Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 1998
"... Description Logics (DLs) are formalisms for taxonomic reasoning about structured knowledge. Adding the transitive closure of roles to DLs also enables them to represent and reason about actions and plans. The present paper explores several essentially different encodings of planning in Description L ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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Description Logics (DLs) are formalisms for taxonomic reasoning about structured knowledge. Adding the transitive closure of roles to DLs also enables them to represent and reason about actions and plans. The present paper explores several essentially different encodings of planning in Description Logics. We argue that DLs represent an ideal framework for analysing and comparing these approaches. Thus, we have identified two essentially different deductive encodings (a "causal" and a "symmetric" one), as well as a satisfiabilitybased approach. While the causal encoding is more appropriate for reasoning about preconditiontriggered causal events, the symmetric encoding is more amenable to reasoning about possible outcomes of courses of actions without actually executing them (while allowing both progression and regression). In the deductive approaches, the existence of a plan corresponds to an inconsistency proof rather than to a model of some formula. Viewing planning as satisfiabili...
Specifying the Effects of Indeterminate Actions
, 1996
"... This paper makes the following two contributions to formal theories of actions: Showing that a causal minimization framework can be used effectively to specify the effects of indeterminate actions; and showing that for certain classes of such actions, regression, an effective computational mechan ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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This paper makes the following two contributions to formal theories of actions: Showing that a causal minimization framework can be used effectively to specify the effects of indeterminate actions; and showing that for certain classes of such actions, regression, an effective computational mechanism, can be used to reason about them. ffl Content Areas knowledge representation; temporal reasoning; commonsense reasoning; nonmonotonic reasoning. ffl Word Counts 6197 (dvi2tty), including the bibliography. ffl Tracking Number 094 This paper has not been submitted elsewhere 0 Specifying the Effects of Indeterminate Actions Abstract This paper makes the following two contributions to formal theories of actions: Showing that a causal minimization framework can be used effectively to specify the effects of indeterminate actions; and showing that for certain classes of such actions, regression, an effective computational mechanism, can be used to reason about them. ffl Content Areas knowledge representation; temporal reasoning; commonsense reasoning; nonmonotonic reasoning. ffl Word Counts 6197 (dvi2tty), including the bibliography. ffl Tracking Number 094 This paper has not been submitted elsewhere 1