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Quantization Index Modulation: A Class of Provably Good Methods for Digital Watermarking and Information Embedding
 IEEE TRANS. ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1999
"... We consider the problem of embedding one signal (e.g., a digital watermark), within another "host" signal to form a third, "composite" signal. The embedding is designed to achieve efficient tradeoffs among the three conflicting goals of maximizing informationembedding rate, mini ..."
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Cited by 495 (15 self)
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We consider the problem of embedding one signal (e.g., a digital watermark), within another "host" signal to form a third, "composite" signal. The embedding is designed to achieve efficient tradeoffs among the three conflicting goals of maximizing informationembedding rate, minimizing distortion between the host signal and composite signal, and maximizing the robustness of the embedding. We introduce new classes of embedding methods, termed quantization index modulation (QIM) and distortioncompensated QIM (DCQIM), and develop convenient realizations in the form of what we refer to as dither modulation. Using deterministic models to evaluate digital watermarking methods, we show that QIM is "provably good" against arbitrary bounded and fully informed attacks, which arise in several copyright applications, and in particular, it achieves provably better rate distortionrobustness tradeoffs than currently popular spreadspectrum and lowbit(s) modulation methods. Furthermore, we show that for some important classes of probabilistic models, DCQIM is optimal (capacityachieving) and regular QIM is nearoptimal. These include both additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels, which may be good models for hybrid transmission applications such as digital audio broadcasting, and meansquareerrorconstrained attack channels that model privatekey watermarking applications.
The Gaussian Watermarking Game
, 2000
"... Watermarking models a copyright protection mechanism where an original source sequence or "covertext" is modified before distribution to the public in order to embed some extra information. The embedding should be transparent (i.e., the modified data sequence or "stegotext" shoul ..."
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Cited by 139 (9 self)
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Watermarking models a copyright protection mechanism where an original source sequence or "covertext" is modified before distribution to the public in order to embed some extra information. The embedding should be transparent (i.e., the modified data sequence or "stegotext" should be similar to the covertext) and robust (i.e., the extra information should be recoverable even if the stegotext is modified further, possibly by a malicious "attacker"). We compute the coding capacity of the watermarking game for a Gaussian covertext and squarederror distortions. Both the public version of the game (covertext known to neither attacker nor decoder) and the private version of the game (covertext unknown to attacker but known to decoder) are treated. While the capacity of the former cannot, of course, exceed the capacity of the latter, we show that the two are, in fact, identical. These capacities depend critically on whether the distortion constraints are required to be met in expectation or with probability one. In the former case the coding capacity is zero, whereas in the latter it coincides with the value of related zerosum dynamic mutual informations games of complete and perfect information. # Parts of this work were presented at the 2000 Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS '00), Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, March 1517, 2000, and at the 2000 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT '00), Sorrento, Italy, June 2530, 2000.
Provably Secure Steganography
 in Advances in Cryptology: CRYPTO 2002
, 2002
"... Informally, steganography is the process of sending a secret message from Alice to Bob in such a way that an eavesdropper (who listens to all communications) cannot even tell that a secret message is being sent. In this work, we initiate the study of steganography from a complexitytheoretic point o ..."
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Cited by 59 (2 self)
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Informally, steganography is the process of sending a secret message from Alice to Bob in such a way that an eavesdropper (who listens to all communications) cannot even tell that a secret message is being sent. In this work, we initiate the study of steganography from a complexitytheoretic point of view. We introduce definitions based on computational indistinguishability and we prove that the existence of oneway functions implies the existence of secure steganographic protocols. Keywords: Steganography, Cryptography, Provable Security 1
On the Capacity Game of Public Watermarking Systems
 IEEE Trans. on Information Theory
, 2002
"... Watermarking codes are analyzed as a game between two players: an information hider, and a decoder, on the one hand, and an attacker on the other hand. The information hider is allowed to cause some tolerable level of distortion to the original data within which the message is hidden, and the result ..."
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Cited by 30 (4 self)
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Watermarking codes are analyzed as a game between two players: an information hider, and a decoder, on the one hand, and an attacker on the other hand. The information hider is allowed to cause some tolerable level of distortion to the original data within which the message is hidden, and the resulting distorted data can suffer some additional amount of distortion caused by an attacker who aims at erasing the message. Motivated by a worstcase approach, we assume that the attacker is informed of the hiding strategy taken by the information hider and the decoder, while they are uninformed of the attacking scheme. A singleletter expression for the capacity is found under the assumption that the covertext is drawn from a memoryless stationary source and its realization (side information) is available at the encoder only.
Identification in the Presence of Side Information with Application to Watermarking
, 2001
"... Watermarking codes are analyzed from an informationtheoretic viewpoint as identification codes with side information that is available at the transmitter only or at both ends. While the information hider embeds a secret message (watermark) in a covertext message (typically, text, image, sound, or v ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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Watermarking codes are analyzed from an informationtheoretic viewpoint as identification codes with side information that is available at the transmitter only or at both ends. While the information hider embeds a secret message (watermark) in a covertext message (typically, text, image, sound, or video stream) within a certain distortion level, the attacker, modeled here as a memoryless channel, processes the resulting watermarked message (within limited additional distortion) in attempt to invalidate the watermark. In most applications of watermarking codes the decoder need not carry out full decoding, as in ordinary coded communication systems, but only to test whether a watermark at all exists and if so, whether it matches a particular hypothesized pattern. This fact motivates us to view the watermarking problem as an identification problem, where the original covertext source serves as side information. In most applications, this side information is available to the encoder only, bu...
Communication and information theory in watermarking: A survey
 SPIE Multimedia Systems and Applications IV
, 2001
"... This paper presents a review of some influential work in the area of digital watermarking using communications and informationtheoretic analysis. After a brief introduction, some popular approaches are classified into different groups and an overview of various algorithms and analysis is provided. ..."
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Cited by 23 (0 self)
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This paper presents a review of some influential work in the area of digital watermarking using communications and informationtheoretic analysis. After a brief introduction, some popular approaches are classified into different groups and an overview of various algorithms and analysis is provided. Insights and potential future trends in the area of watermarking theory are discussed.
Steganalysis and Game Equilibria
 in Information Hiding, 2nd International Workshop
, 1998
"... Steganography is the study of methods of concealing data in the noise of another data set. Steganalysis is the field of discovering hidden data and disrupting covert channels. We introduce a twoplayer, zerosum, matrix game for the purpose of modeling the contest between a datahider and a dataatt ..."
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Cited by 20 (0 self)
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Steganography is the study of methods of concealing data in the noise of another data set. Steganalysis is the field of discovering hidden data and disrupting covert channels. We introduce a twoplayer, zerosum, matrix game for the purpose of modeling the contest between a datahider and a dataattacker. We then solve the game for equilibria, demonstrating that the form of the solution depends on whether the permitted distortion is less than or greater than d c , the critical distortion. This critical point is a simple function of several parameters which define the game. We then solve two example cases to demonstrate the ideas presented in the general solution. The value of the game is the amount of information that may be reliably stored in the data set. Keywords: Steganalysis, Cryptanalysis, Equilibria, Shannon Entropy, Binary Symmetric Channel, Active Warden Attack. 1 Introduction Recently techniques in steganography have received a great deal of attention [1], [6], mostly from m...
The Capacity of the Vector Gaussian Watermarking Game
 in Proc. ISIT 2001
, 2001
"... We compute the coding capacity of the watermarking game for a vector Gaussian covertext and squarederror distortions. As with a scalar Gaussian covertext [1], the capacity does not depend on knowledge of the covertext at the decoder. Unlike the scalar version, an attacker based on the rate distorti ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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We compute the coding capacity of the watermarking game for a vector Gaussian covertext and squarederror distortions. As with a scalar Gaussian covertext [1], the capacity does not depend on knowledge of the covertext at the decoder. Unlike the scalar version, an attacker based on the rate distortion solution (i.e. optimal compression) is suboptimal.
On Random Coding Error Exponents of Watermarking Codes
 IEEE Trans. Info Thy
, 2000
"... steganography, watermarking, information hiding, error exponent, random coding Watermarking codes are analyzed from an informationtheoretic viewpoint as a game between an information hider and an active attacker. While the information hider embeds a secret message (watermark) in a covertext message ..."
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Cited by 6 (2 self)
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steganography, watermarking, information hiding, error exponent, random coding Watermarking codes are analyzed from an informationtheoretic viewpoint as a game between an information hider and an active attacker. While the information hider embeds a secret message (watermark) in a covertext message (typically, text, image, sound, or video stream) within a certain distortion level, the attacker processes the resulting watermarked message, within limited additional distortion, in an attempt to invalidate the watermark. For a memoryless covertext source, we provide a singleletter characterization of the minimaxmaximin game of the random coding error exponent associated with the average probability of erroneously decoding the watermark. This singleletter characterization is in effect because there is a “memoryless saddle point ” in this game: The information hider utilizes a memoryless channel to generate random codewords for every covertext message, whereas the attacker implements a memoryless channel to disrupt the watermark information hidden in the covertext.
DIGITAL WATERMARKING, FINGERPRINTING AND COMPRESSION: An . . .
, 2002
"... The ease with which digital data can be duplicated and distributed over the media and the Internet has raised many concerns about copyright infringement. In many situations, multimedia data (e.g., images, music, movies, etc) are illegally circulated, thus violating intellectual property rights. In a ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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The ease with which digital data can be duplicated and distributed over the media and the Internet has raised many concerns about copyright infringement. In many situations, multimedia data (e.g., images, music, movies, etc) are illegally circulated, thus violating intellectual property rights. In an attempt to overcome this problem, watermarking has been suggested in the literature as the most effective means for copyright protection and authentication. Watermarking is the procedure whereby information (pertaining to owner and/or copyright) is embedded into host data, such that it is: (i) hidden, i.e., not perceptually visible; and (ii) recoverable, even after a (possibly malicious) degradation of the protected work. In this thesis, we prove some theoretical results that establish the fundamental limits of a general class of watermarking schemes. The main focus of this thesis is the problem of joint watermarking and compression of images, which can be briefly described as follows: due to bandwidth or storage constraints, a watermarked image is distributed in quantized form, using RQ bits per image dimension, and is subject to some additional degradation (possibly due to malicious attacks). The hidden message carries RW bits per