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A Characterization of the Stochastic Process Underlying a Stochastic Petri Net
 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
, 1994
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Modelbased evaluation: From dependability to security
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DEPENDABLE AND SECURE COMPUTING
, 2004
"... The development of techniques for quantitative, modelbased evaluation of computer system dependability has a long and rich history. A wide array of modelbased evaluation techniques are now available, ranging from combinatorial methods, which are useful for quick, roughcut analyses, to statebased ..."
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Cited by 96 (5 self)
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The development of techniques for quantitative, modelbased evaluation of computer system dependability has a long and rich history. A wide array of modelbased evaluation techniques are now available, ranging from combinatorial methods, which are useful for quick, roughcut analyses, to statebased methods, such as Markov reward models, and detailed, discreteevent simulation. The use of quantitative techniques for security evaluation is much less common, and has typically taken the form of formal analysis of small parts of an overall design, or experimental red teambased approaches. Alone, neither of these approaches is fully satisfactory, and we argue that there is much to be gained through the development of a sound modelbased methodology for quantifying the security one can expect from a particular design. In this work, we survey existing modelbased techniques for evaluating system dependability, and summarize how they are now being extended to evaluate system security. We find that many techniques from dependability evaluation can be applied in the security domain, but that significant challenges remain, largely due to fundamental differences between the accidental nature of the faults commonly assumed in dependability evaluation, and the intentional, human nature of cyber attacks.
Stochastic petri nets: An elementary introduction
 In Advances in Petri Nets
, 1989
"... ABSTRACT Petri nets in which random firing delays are associated with transitions whose ..."
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Cited by 66 (0 self)
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ABSTRACT Petri nets in which random firing delays are associated with transitions whose
Generalized stochastic Petri nets: A definition at the net level and its implications
 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
, 1993
"... Abstmct The original proposals of several stochastic Petri net modeling techniques and of generalized stochastic Petri nets (GSPN) in particular were based mainly on the characteristics of their underlying stochastic processes. This led to the use of GSPN only as a shortened notation for the descri ..."
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Cited by 62 (9 self)
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Abstmct The original proposals of several stochastic Petri net modeling techniques and of generalized stochastic Petri nets (GSPN) in particular were based mainly on the characteristics of their underlying stochastic processes. This led to the use of GSPN only as a shortened notation for the description of stochastic models. Although already quite useful in practice, this approach did not fully exploit the benefits of a Petri net description; in particular, it did not use any of the results of classical net theory. The integration of qualitative net theory results, together with the probabilistic analysis approach, requires a deep structural foundation of the GSPN definition. In this paper, the class of Petri nets obtained by eliminating timing from GSPN models while preserving the qualitative behavior is identified. Structural results for those nets are also derived, thus obtaining the first structural analysis of Petri nets with priority and inhibitor arcs. A revision of the GSPN definition based on the structural properties of the models is then presented. The main advantage is that for a (wide) class of nets, the definition of firing probabilities of conflicting immediate transitions does not require the information on reachable markings (which was, instead, necessary with the original definition). Identification of the class of models for which the netlevel specification is possible is also based on the structural analysis results. The new procedure for the model specification is illustrated by means of an example, which shows the usefulness of the new approach. A net level specification of the model associated with efficient structural analysis techniques can have a substantial impact on model analysis as well. Index TermsConflicts and concurrency, Markovian models, performance modeling, probabilistic specification, stochastic Petri nets, structural Petri net analysis, timed and immediate transitions, transition priorities. I.
Specification And Construction Of Performability Models
, 1993
"... Modelbased performability evaluation of computer and communication systems requires accurate and efficient techniques for model construction as well as model solution. Moreover, as the physical and logical complexity of such systems continues to grow, there is need for increased care in specifying ..."
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Cited by 28 (0 self)
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Modelbased performability evaluation of computer and communication systems requires accurate and efficient techniques for model construction as well as model solution. Moreover, as the physical and logical complexity of such systems continues to grow, there is need for increased care in specifying just what is to be constructed in response to the aims of a given evaluation study. This presentation thus focuses on specification and construction aspects of performability modeling, under the assumption that construction (and subsequent solution) are automated. Concepts and methods are described for each, with emphasis on specifying/realizing the relation between a base stochastic model and the measures it must support. Although stochastic activity networks are chosen as the vehicle for base model speci#cation, many of the techniques employed convey principles that apply as well to other specification constructs.
A formal definition of dataflow graph models
 IEEE Trans. Comput
, 1986
"... AbstractIn this paper, a new model for parallel computations and parallel computer systems that is based on data flow principles is presented. Uninterpreted data flow graphs can be used to model computer systems including data driven and parallel processors. A data flow graph is defined to be a bi ..."
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Cited by 23 (2 self)
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AbstractIn this paper, a new model for parallel computations and parallel computer systems that is based on data flow principles is presented. Uninterpreted data flow graphs can be used to model computer systems including data driven and parallel processors. A data flow graph is defined to be a bipartite graph with actors and links as the two vertex classes. Actors can be considered similar to transitions in Petri nets, and links similar to places. The nondeterministic nature of uninterpreted data flow graphs necessitates the derivation of liveness conditions. Index TermsBipartite graphs, data flow graphs, deadlocks, liveness, parallel computations, Petri nets. I.
Recent Developments in NonMarkovian Stochastic Petri Nets
, 1998
"... Analytical modeling plays a crucial role in the analysis and design of computer systems. Stochastic Petri Nets represent a powerful paradigm, widely used for such modeling in the context of dependability, performance and performability. Many structural and stochastic extensions have been proposed in ..."
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Cited by 22 (4 self)
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Analytical modeling plays a crucial role in the analysis and design of computer systems. Stochastic Petri Nets represent a powerful paradigm, widely used for such modeling in the context of dependability, performance and performability. Many structural and stochastic extensions have been proposed in recent years to increase their modeling power, or their capability to handle large systems. This paper reviews recent developments by providing the theoretical background and the possible areas of application. Markovian Petri nets are first considered together with very well established extensions known as Generalized Stochastic Petri nets and Stochastic Reward Nets. Key ideas for coping with large state spaces are then discussed. The challenging area of nonMarkovian Petri nets is considered, and the related analysis techniques are surveyed together with the detailed elaboration of an example. Finally new models based on Continuous or Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets are briefly discussed.
Jr, “Estimation and Enhancement of RealTime Software Reliability through Mutation Analysis
 IEEE Trans. Computers
, 1992
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Performability modelling tools and techniques
, 1996
"... Over the last decade considerable effort has been put in the development of techniques to assess the performance and the dependability of computer and communication systems in an integrated way. This socalled performability modelling becomes especially useful when the system under study can operate ..."
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Cited by 15 (5 self)
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Over the last decade considerable effort has been put in the development of techniques to assess the performance and the dependability of computer and communication systems in an integrated way. This socalled performability modelling becomes especially useful when the system under study can operate partially, which is for instance the case for faulttolerant computer systems and distributed systems. Modelling techniques are a fundamental prerequisite for actually doing performability analysis. A prerequisite of a more practical but not less important nature is the availability of software tools to support the modelling techniques and to allow system designers to incorporate the new techniques in the design process of systems. Since performability modelling requires many aspects of a system to be specified, high requirements should be posed on perfotmability modelling tools. Moreover, these tools should be structured such that the models can be specified at a level that is easy to understand for a system designer, and that the mathematical aspects are hidden as much as possible. The output of the tool should also be such that it can be understood with only limited knowledge of the underlying mathematical model. We have developed a new, fairly general modelling tool framework that can be used as a guide to assess the usability and structure of performability modelling tools. After briefly reviewing the mathematical aspects of performability mcxlelling we discuss this framework. We then discuss 12 recently developed tools (Metaphor, Numas, Metasan, Metfac, Save, Sharpe, SPNP, Tangram, Penpet, UltraSAN, Surf2, DyQNtool+) that can all be used for some aspects of performability modelling and analysis. We assess among other things their structure, their capabilities in terms of measures that can be obtained, and the used modelling formalism. We also discuss directions for future work in the field of performability modelling tools.