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Designing and Refining Schema Mappings via Data Examples
 In ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data (SIGMOD
, 2011
"... A schema mapping is a specification of the relationship between a source schema and a target schema. Schema mappings are fundamental building blocks in data integration and data exchange and, as such, obtaining the right schema mapping constitutes a major step towards the integration or exchange of ..."
Abstract

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A schema mapping is a specification of the relationship between a source schema and a target schema. Schema mappings are fundamental building blocks in data integration and data exchange and, as such, obtaining the right schema mapping constitutes a major step towards the integration or exchange of data. Up to now, schema mappings have typically been specified manually or have been derived using mappingdesign systems that automatically generate a schema mapping from a visual specification of the relationship between two schemas. We present a novel paradigm and develop a system for the interactive design of schema mappings via data examples. Each data example represents a partial specification of the semantics of the desired schema mapping. At the core of our system lies a sound and complete algorithm that, given a finite set of data examples, decides whether or not there exists a GLAV schema mapping (i.e., a schema mapping specified by GlobalandLocalAsView constraints) that “fits ” these data examples. If such a fitting GLAV schema mapping exists, then our system constructs the “most general ” one. We give a rigorous computational complexity analysis of the underlying decision problem concerning the existence of a fitting GLAV schema mapping, given a set of data examples. Specifically, we prove that this problem is complete for the second level of the polynomial hierarchy, hence, in a precise sense, harder than NPcomplete. This worstcase complexity analysis notwithstanding, we conduct an experimental evaluation of our prototype implementation that demonstrates the feasibility of interactively designing schema mappings using data examples. In particular, our experiments show that our system achieves very good performance in reallife scenarios. 1.