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29
A Tight Bound on Approximating Arbitrary Metrics by Tree Metrics
 In Proceedings of the 35th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2003
"... In this paper, we show that any n point metric space can be embedded into a distribution over dominating tree metrics such that the expected stretch of any edge is O(log n). This improves upon the result of Bartal who gave a bound of O(log n log log n). Moreover, our result is existentially tight; t ..."
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Cited by 301 (8 self)
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In this paper, we show that any n point metric space can be embedded into a distribution over dominating tree metrics such that the expected stretch of any edge is O(log n). This improves upon the result of Bartal who gave a bound of O(log n log log n). Moreover, our result is existentially tight; there exist metric spaces where any tree embedding must have distortion#sto n)distortion. This problem lies at the heart of numerous approximation and online algorithms including ones for group Steiner tree, metric labeling, buyatbulk network design and metrical task system. Our result improves the performance guarantees for all of these problems.
Bounded geometries, fractals, and lowdistortion embeddings
"... The doubling constant of a metric space (X; d) is thesmallest value * such that every ball in X can be covered by * balls of half the radius. The doubling dimension of X isthen defined as dim(X) = log2 *. A metric (or sequence ofmetrics) is called doubling precisely when its doubling dimension is ..."
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Cited by 198 (40 self)
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The doubling constant of a metric space (X; d) is thesmallest value * such that every ball in X can be covered by * balls of half the radius. The doubling dimension of X isthen defined as dim(X) = log2 *. A metric (or sequence ofmetrics) is called doubling precisely when its doubling dimension is bounded. This is a robust class of metric spaceswhich contains many families of metrics that occur in applied settings.We give tight bounds for embedding doubling metrics into (lowdimensional) normed spaces. We consider bothgeneral doubling metrics, as well as more restricted families such as those arising from trees, from graphs excludinga fixed minor, and from snowflaked metrics. Our techniques include decomposition theorems for doubling metrics, andan analysis of a fractal in the plane due to Laakso [21]. Finally, we discuss some applications and point out a centralopen question regarding dimensionality reduction in L2.
Subexponential parameterized algorithms on graphs of boundedgenus and Hminorfree Graphs
"... ... Building on these results, we develop subexponential fixedparameter algorithms for dominating set, vertex cover, and set cover in any class of graphs excluding a fixed graph H as a minor. Inparticular, this general category of graphs includes planar graphs, boundedgenus graphs, singlecrossing ..."
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Cited by 61 (20 self)
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... Building on these results, we develop subexponential fixedparameter algorithms for dominating set, vertex cover, and set cover in any class of graphs excluding a fixed graph H as a minor. Inparticular, this general category of graphs includes planar graphs, boundedgenus graphs, singlecrossingminorfree graphs, and anyclass of graphs that is closed under taking minors. Specifically, the running time is 2O(pk)nh, where h is a constant depending onlyon H, which is polynomial for k = O(log² n). We introducea general approach for developing algorithms on Hminorfreegraphs, based on structural results about Hminorfree graphs at the
Metric cotype
, 2005
"... We introduce the notion of metric cotype, a property of metric spaces related to a property of normed spaces, called Rademacher cotype. Apart from settling a long standing open problem in metric geometry, this property is used to prove the following dichotomy: A family of metric spaces F is either a ..."
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Cited by 41 (19 self)
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We introduce the notion of metric cotype, a property of metric spaces related to a property of normed spaces, called Rademacher cotype. Apart from settling a long standing open problem in metric geometry, this property is used to prove the following dichotomy: A family of metric spaces F is either almost universal (i.e., contains any finite metric space with any distortion> 1), or there exists α> 0, and arbitrarily large npoint metrics whose distortion when embedded in any member of F is at least Ω ((log n) α). The same property is also used to prove strong nonembeddability theorems of Lq into Lp, when q> max{2, p}. Finally we use metric cotype to obtain a new type of isoperimetric inequality on the discrete torus. 1
Finite metricspaces—combinatorics, geometry and algorithms
 in: Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians, Vol. III, Higher Ed
, 2002
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Equivalence of Local Treewidth and Linear Local Treewidth and its Algorithmic Applications
 In Proceedings of the 15th ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA’04
, 2003
"... We solve an open problem posed by Eppstein in 1995 [14, 15] and reenforced by Grohe [16, 17] concerning locally bounded treewidth in minorclosed families of graphs. A graph has bounded local treewidth if the subgraph induced by vertices within distance r of any vertex has treewidth bounded by a f ..."
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Cited by 30 (10 self)
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We solve an open problem posed by Eppstein in 1995 [14, 15] and reenforced by Grohe [16, 17] concerning locally bounded treewidth in minorclosed families of graphs. A graph has bounded local treewidth if the subgraph induced by vertices within distance r of any vertex has treewidth bounded by a function of r (not n). Eppstein characterized minorclosed families of graphs with bounded local treewidth as precisely minorclosed families that minorexclude an apex graph, where an apex graph has one vertex whose removal leaves a planar graph. In particular, Eppstein showed that all apexminorfree graphs have bounded local treewidth, but his bound is doubly exponential in r, leaving open whether a tighter bound could be obtained. We improve this doubly exponential bound to a linear bound, which is optimal. In particular, any minorclosed graph family with bounded local treewidth has linear local treewidth. Our bound generalizes previously known linear bounds for special classes of graphs proved by several authors. As a consequence of our result, we obtain substantially faster polynomialtime approximation schemes for a broad class of problems in apexminorfree graphs, improving the running time from .
Embeddings of topological graphs: Lossy invariants, linearization, and 2sums
"... We study the properties of embeddings, multicommodity flows, and sparse cuts in minorclosed families of graphs which are also closed under 2sums; this includes planar graphs, graphs of bounded treewidth, and constructions based on recursive edge replacement. In particular, we show the following. • ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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We study the properties of embeddings, multicommodity flows, and sparse cuts in minorclosed families of graphs which are also closed under 2sums; this includes planar graphs, graphs of bounded treewidth, and constructions based on recursive edge replacement. In particular, we show the following. • Every graph which excludes K4 as a minor (in particular, seriesparallel graphs) admits an embedding into L1 with distortion at most 2, confirming a conjecture of Gupta, Newman, Rabinovich, and Sinclair, and improving over their upper bound of 14. This shows that in every multicommodity flow instance on such a graph, one can route a maximum concurrent flow whose value is at least half the cut bound. Our upper bound is optimal, as it matches a recent lower bound of Lee and Raghavendra. • We move beyond K4minorfree graphs by showing that every W4minorfreegraph embeds into L1 with O(1) distortion, where W4 is the 4wheel. By a characterization of Seymour, these graphs are precisely subgraphs of 2sums of K4’s. • We prove that if G and H are two minorclosed families and G is closed under taking 2sums, then members of G embed nontrivially into noncontracting distributions over members of H if and only if G ⊆ H. This significantly generalizes a result of Gupta, et al. where G and H are the families of K4minorfree graphs and trees, respectively.
Randomly Removing g Handles at Once
, 2009
"... It was shown in [11] that any orientable graph of genus g can be probabilistically embedded into a graph of genus g − 1 with constant distortion. Removing handles one by one gives an embedding into a distribution over planar graphs with distortion 2 O(g). By removing all g handles at once, we presen ..."
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Cited by 11 (2 self)
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It was shown in [11] that any orientable graph of genus g can be probabilistically embedded into a graph of genus g − 1 with constant distortion. Removing handles one by one gives an embedding into a distribution over planar graphs with distortion 2 O(g). By removing all g handles at once, we present a probabilistic embedding with distortion O(g 2) for both orientable and nonorientable graphs. Our result is obtained by showing that the minimumcut graph of [6] has low dilation, and then randomly cutting this graph out of the surface using the Peeling Lemma from [13].