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Moving Steganography and Steganalysis from the Laboratory into the Real World
"... There has been an explosion of academic literature on steganography and steganalysis in the past two decades. With a few exceptions, such papers address abstractions of the hiding and detection problems, which arguably have become disconnected from the real world. Most published results, including b ..."
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There has been an explosion of academic literature on steganography and steganalysis in the past two decades. With a few exceptions, such papers address abstractions of the hiding and detection problems, which arguably have become disconnected from the real world. Most published results, including by the authors of this paper, apply “in laboratory conditions ” and some are heavily hedged by assumptions and caveats; significant challenges remain unsolved in order to implement good steganography and steganalysis in practice. This position paper sets out some of the important questions which have been left unanswered, as well as highlighting some that have already been addressed successfully, for steganography and steganalysis to be used in the real world.
The Square Root Law Does Not Require a Linear Key
"... Square root laws are theorems about imperfect steganography, embedding which fails to preserve all statistical properties of covers. They show that, in various situations, capacity of covers grows only with the square root of the available cover size. In a paper given at this conference last year [1 ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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Square root laws are theorems about imperfect steganography, embedding which fails to preserve all statistical properties of covers. They show that, in various situations, capacity of covers grows only with the square root of the available cover size. In a paper given at this conference last year [14], we showed an important caveat: when the sender’s and recipient’s shared embedding key determines the embedding path, its length must be at least linear in the size of the hidden payload to avoid their enemy exhausting over all possible sets of locations. It was left open to show that a linear key is sufficient. There is no necessity, however, for the recipient to know exactly which locations were changed during the embedding process. In this paper we remove that condition, allowing the embedder to combine more than one cover location to convey one bit of payload. As long as the embedder lives beneath the classic square root law bound, we can do more than prove the sufficiency of a linear key: we can even show that asymptotically perfect steganographic security is possible with no key at all. Furthermore, by computing Steganographic Fisher Information, we can show that the keyless embedding tends to perfect security at least as fast as the “ideal”embedding, which requires an unfeasibly large key to spread payload uniformly at random over the cover. Finally, we show asymptotic perfect security of a simple matrix embedding, which allows payload capacity of order √ n log n to be achieved.
The Square Root Law requires a linear key
 in Proc. 11th ACM Workshop on Multimedia and Security, 2009
"... We extend the square root law of steganographic capacity, for the simplest case of iid covers, in two ways. First, we show that the law still holds under a more realistic embedding assumption, where the payload is of fixed length (instead of, in the classic result, independent embedding at each loca ..."
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Cited by 3 (3 self)
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We extend the square root law of steganographic capacity, for the simplest case of iid covers, in two ways. First, we show that the law still holds under a more realistic embedding assumption, where the payload is of fixed length (instead of, in the classic result, independent embedding at each location). Second, we consider the case of nonuniform embedding paths, which is forced when the stegosystem’s secret key is of limited size: we show that the secret key must be of length at least linear in the payload size, if a square root law is to hold. The latter is parallel to Shannon’s perfect cryptography bound. Categories and Subject Descriptors D.2.11 [Software Engineering]: Software Architectures— information hiding; H.1.1 [Models and Principles]: Systems
Perturbation Hiding and the Batch Steganography Problem
"... Abstract. The batch steganography problem is how best to split a steganographic payload between multiple covers. This paper makes some progress towards an informationtheoretic analysis of batch steganography by describing a novel mathematical abstraction we call perturbation hiding. As well as prov ..."
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Abstract. The batch steganography problem is how best to split a steganographic payload between multiple covers. This paper makes some progress towards an informationtheoretic analysis of batch steganography by describing a novel mathematical abstraction we call perturbation hiding. As well as providing a new challenge for information hiding research, it brings into focus the information asymmetry in steganalysis of multiple objects: Kerckhoffs ’ Principle must be interpreted carefully. Our main result is the solution of the perturbation hiding problem for a certain class of distributions, and the implication for batch steganographic embedding. However, numerical computations show that the result does not hold for all distributions, and we provide some additional asymptotic results to help explore the problem more widely. 1
The Square Root Law of . . .
, 2008
"... There are a number of recent information theoretic results demonstrating (under certain conditions) a sublinear relationship between the number of cover objects and their total steganographic capacity. In this paper we explain how these results may be adapted to the steganographic capacity of a sing ..."
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There are a number of recent information theoretic results demonstrating (under certain conditions) a sublinear relationship between the number of cover objects and their total steganographic capacity. In this paper we explain how these results may be adapted to the steganographic capacity of a single cover object, which under the right conditions should be proportional to the square root of the cover size. Then we perform some experiments using three genuine steganography methods in digital images, covering both spatial and DCT domains. Measuring detectability under four different steganalysis methods, for a variety of payload and cover sizes, we observe close accordance with a square root law.
Computing Science Group THE UNIFORM PRIOR AND ZERO INFORMATION:
"... Reasoning about maximal performance of hypothesis tests is difficult when there is supposed to be no information about some of the parameters. A common technique is to place a uniform prior on unknowns. In a recent steganography application [1], this gave a nonsensical answer, and we give an exposit ..."
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Reasoning about maximal performance of hypothesis tests is difficult when there is supposed to be no information about some of the parameters. A common technique is to place a uniform prior on unknowns. In a recent steganography application [1], this gave a nonsensical answer, and we give an exposition and resolution of the paradox here. This note is a companion to [1]. 1
ClusterBased Vehicular Data Collection for Efficient LTE MachineType Communication
"... Abstract—MachineType Communication (MTC) poses an ongoing research topic in the development of cellular communication systems. In this context, the efficient collection of extended Floating Car Data (xFCD) via Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a major challenge. In this paper, we present clusterbased ..."
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Abstract—MachineType Communication (MTC) poses an ongoing research topic in the development of cellular communication systems. In this context, the efficient collection of extended Floating Car Data (xFCD) via Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a major challenge. In this paper, we present clusterbased xFCD collection schemes in order to form clusters with a long lifetime. As a result, the proposed clustering algorithms reduce the occurring cellular communication traffic. For the performance evaluation of the presented algorithm, a novel system model is used. By means of the system model, the user mobility can be modeled realistically and a precise quantification of the utilization of the LTE network for xFCD transmission is possible. The results show that the LTE network utilization can be significantly reduced by the proposed clustering algorithms. I.