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Progressive Meshes
"... Highly detailed geometric models are rapidly becoming commonplace in computer graphics. These models, often represented as complex triangle meshes, challenge rendering performance, transmission bandwidth, and storage capacities. This paper introduces the progressive mesh (PM) representation, a new s ..."
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Cited by 1315 (11 self)
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Highly detailed geometric models are rapidly becoming commonplace in computer graphics. These models, often represented as complex triangle meshes, challenge rendering performance, transmission bandwidth, and storage capacities. This paper introduces the progressive mesh (PM) representation, a new scheme for storing and transmitting arbitrary triangle meshes. This efficient, lossless, continuousresolution representation addresses several practical problems in graphics: smooth geomorphing of levelofdetail approximations, progressive transmission, mesh compression, and selective refinement. In addition, we present a new mesh simplification procedure for constructing a PM representation from an arbitrary mesh. The goal of this optimization procedure is to preserve not just the geometry of the original mesh, but more importantly its overall appearance as defined by its discrete and scalar appearance attributes such as material identifiers, color values, normals, and texture coordinates. We demonstrate construction of the PM representation and its applications using several practical models.
QSplat: A Multiresolution Point Rendering System for Large Meshes
, 2000
"... Advances in 3D scanning technologies have enabled the practical creation of meshes with hundreds of millions of polygons. Traditional algorithms for display, simplification, and progressive transmission of meshes are impractical for data sets of this size. We describe a system for representing and p ..."
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Cited by 502 (8 self)
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Advances in 3D scanning technologies have enabled the practical creation of meshes with hundreds of millions of polygons. Traditional algorithms for display, simplification, and progressive transmission of meshes are impractical for data sets of this size. We describe a system for representing and progressively displaying these meshes that combines a multiresolution hierarchy based on bounding spheres with a rendering system based on points. A single data structure is used for view frustum culling, backface culling, levelofdetail selection, and rendering. The representation is compact and can be computed quickly, making it suitable for large data sets. Our implementation, written for use in a largescale 3D digitization project, launches quickly, maintains a usersettable interactive frame rate regardless of object complexity or camera position, yields reasonable image quality during motion, and refines progressively when idle to a high final image quality. We have demonstrated the system on scanned models containing hundreds of millions of samples.
ViewDependent Refinement of Progressive Meshes
"... Levelofdetail (LOD) representations are an important tool for realtime rendering of complex geometric environments. The previously introduced progressive mesh representation defines for an arbitrary triangle mesh a sequence of approximating meshes optimized for viewindependent LOD. In this paper, ..."
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Cited by 459 (5 self)
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Levelofdetail (LOD) representations are an important tool for realtime rendering of complex geometric environments. The previously introduced progressive mesh representation defines for an arbitrary triangle mesh a sequence of approximating meshes optimized for viewindependent LOD. In this paper, we introduce a framework for selectively refining an arbitrary progressive mesh according to changing view parameters. We define efficient refinement criteria based on the view frustum, surface orientation, and screenspace geometric error, and develop a realtime algorithm for incrementally refining and coarsening the mesh according to these criteria. The algorithm exploits view coherence, supports frame rate regulation, and is found to require less than 15 % of total frame time on a graphics workstation. Moreover, for continuous motions this work can be amortized over consecutive frames. In addition, smooth visual transitions (geomorphs) can be constructed between any two selectively refined meshes. A number of previous schemes create viewdependent LOD meshes for height fields (e.g. terrains) and parametric surfaces (e.g. NURBS). Our framework also performs well for these special cases. Notably, the absence of a rigid subdivision structure allows more accurate approximations than with existing schemes. We include results for these cases as well as for general meshes.
RealTime, Continuous Level of Detail Rendering of Height Fields
, 1996
"... We present an algorithm for realtime level of detail reduction and display of highcomplexity polygonal surface data. The algorithm uses a compact and efficient regular grid representation, and employs a variable screenspace threshold to bound the maximum error of the projected image. A coarse lev ..."
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Cited by 296 (15 self)
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We present an algorithm for realtime level of detail reduction and display of highcomplexity polygonal surface data. The algorithm uses a compact and efficient regular grid representation, and employs a variable screenspace threshold to bound the maximum error of the projected image. A coarse level of simplification is performed to select discrete levels of detail for blocks of the surface mesh, followed by further simplification through repolygonalization in which individual mesh vertices are considered for removal. These steps compute and generate the appropriate level of detail dynamically in realtime, minimizing the number of rendered polygons and allowing for smooth changes in resolution across areas of the surface. The algorithm has been implemented for approximating and rendering digital terrain models and other height fields, and consistently performs at interactive frame rates with high image quality.
ROAMing Terrain: Realtime Optimally Adapting Meshes
, 1997
"... Terrain visualization is a difficult problem for applications requiring accurate images of large datasets at high frame rates, such as flight simulation and groundbased aircraft testing using synthetic sensor stimulation. On current graphics hardware, the problem is to maintain dynamic, viewdepend ..."
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Cited by 287 (10 self)
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Terrain visualization is a difficult problem for applications requiring accurate images of large datasets at high frame rates, such as flight simulation and groundbased aircraft testing using synthetic sensor stimulation. On current graphics hardware, the problem is to maintain dynamic, viewdependent triangle meshes and texture maps that produce good images at the required frame rate. We present an algorithm for constructing triangle meshes that optimizes flexible viewdependent error metrics, produces guaranteed error bounds, achieves specified triangle counts directly, and uses frametoframe coherence to operate at high frame rates for thousands of triangles per frame. Our method, dubbed Realtime Optimally Adapting Meshes (ROAM), uses two priority queues to drive split and merge operations that maintain continuous triangulations built from preprocessed bintree triangles. We introduce two additional performance optimizations: incremental triangle stripping and prioritycomputation deferral lists. ROAM execution time is proportionate to the number of triangle changes per frame, which is typically a few percent of the output mesh size, hence ROAM performance is insensitive to the resolution and extent of the input terrain. Dynamic terrain and simple vertex morphing are supported.
Viewdependent simplification of arbitrary polygonal environments
, 1997
"... Hierarchical dynamic simplification (HDS) is a new approach to the problem of simplifying arbitrary polygonal environments. HDS operates dynamically, retessellating the scene continuously as the user’s viewing position shifts, and adaptively, processing the entire database without first decomposing ..."
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Cited by 286 (15 self)
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Hierarchical dynamic simplification (HDS) is a new approach to the problem of simplifying arbitrary polygonal environments. HDS operates dynamically, retessellating the scene continuously as the user’s viewing position shifts, and adaptively, processing the entire database without first decomposing the environment into individual objects. The resulting system allows realtime display of very complex polygonal CAD models consisting of thousands of parts and hundreds of thousands of polygons. HDS supports various preprocessing algorithms and various runtime criteria, providing a general framework for dynamic viewdependent simplification. Briefly, HDS works by clustering vertices together in a hierarchical fashion. The simplification process continuously queries this hierarchy to generate a scene containing only those polygons that are important from the current viewpoint. When the volume of space associated with a vertex cluster occupies less than a userspecified amount of the screen, all vertices within that cluster are collapsed together and degenerate polygons filtered out. HDS maintains an active list of visible polygons for rendering. Since frametoframe movements typically involve small changes in viewpoint, and therefore modify the active list by only a few polygons, the method takes advantage of temporal coherence for greater speed.
Geometric Compression through Topological Surgery
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON GRAPHICS
, 1998
"... ... this article introduces a new compressed representation for complex triangulated models and simple, yet efficient, compression and decompression algorithms. In this scheme, vertex positions are quantized within the desired accuracy, a vertex spanning tree is used to predict the position of each ..."
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Cited by 283 (28 self)
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... this article introduces a new compressed representation for complex triangulated models and simple, yet efficient, compression and decompression algorithms. In this scheme, vertex positions are quantized within the desired accuracy, a vertex spanning tree is used to predict the position of each vertex from 2, 3, or 4 of its ancestors in the tree, and the correction vectors are entropy encoded. Properties, such as normals, colors, and texture coordinates, are compressed in a similar manner. The connectivity is encoded with no loss of information to an average of less than two bits per triangle. The vertex spanning tree and a small set of jump edges are used to split the model into a simple polygon. A triangle spanning tree and a sequence of marching bits are used to encode the triangulation of the polygon. Our approach improves on Michael Deering's pioneering results by exploiting the geometric coherence of several ancestors in the vertex spanning tree, preserving the connectivity with no loss of information, avoiding vertex repetitions, and using about three times fewer bits for the connectivity. However, since decompression requires random access to all vertices, this method must be modified for hardware rendering with limited onboard memory. Finally, we demonstrate implementation results for a variety of VRML models with up to two orders of magnitude compression
Smooth ViewDependent LevelofDetail Control and Its Application to Terrain Rendering
"... The key to realtime rendering of largescale surfaces is to locally adapt surface geometric complexity to changing view parameters. Several schemes have been developed to address this problem of viewdependent levelofdetail control. Among these, the viewdependent progressive mesh (VDPM) framewor ..."
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Cited by 264 (1 self)
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The key to realtime rendering of largescale surfaces is to locally adapt surface geometric complexity to changing view parameters. Several schemes have been developed to address this problem of viewdependent levelofdetail control. Among these, the viewdependent progressive mesh (VDPM) framework represents an arbitrary triangle mesh as a hierarchy of geometrically optimized refinement transformations, from which accurate approximating meshes can be efficiently retrieved. In this paper we extend the general VDPM framework to provide temporal coherence through the runtime creation of geomorphs. These geomorphs eliminate "popping" artifacts by smoothly interpolating geometry. Their implementation requires new outputsensitive data structures, which have the added benefit of reducing memory use.
Visual Navigation of Large Environments Using Textured Clusters
 In 1995 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics
, 1995
"... A visual navigation system is described which uses texture mapped primitives to represent clusters of objects to maintain high and approximately constant frame rates. In cases where there are more unoccluded primitives inside the viewing frustum than can be drawn in realtime on the workstation, thi ..."
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Cited by 234 (1 self)
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A visual navigation system is described which uses texture mapped primitives to represent clusters of objects to maintain high and approximately constant frame rates. In cases where there are more unoccluded primitives inside the viewing frustum than can be drawn in realtime on the workstation, this system ensures that each visible object, or a cluster that includes it, is drawn in each frame. The system also supports the use of traditional "levelofdetail" representations for individual objects, and supports the automatic generation of a certain type of levelofdetail for objects and clusters of objects. The system supports the concept of choosing a representation from among those associated with an object that accounts for the direction from which the object is viewed. The system as a whole can be viewed as a generalization of the levelofdetail concept, where the entire scene is stored as a hierarchy of levelsofdetail that is traversed topdown to find a good representation fo...
Approximating Polyhedra with Spheres for TimeCritical Collision Detection
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 1996
"... This paper presents a method for approximating polyhedral objects to support a timecritical collisiondetection algorithm. The approximations are hierarchies of spheres, and they allow the timecritical algorithm to progressively refine the accuracy of its detection, stopping as needed to maintain ..."
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Cited by 212 (1 self)
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This paper presents a method for approximating polyhedral objects to support a timecritical collisiondetection algorithm. The approximations are hierarchies of spheres, and they allow the timecritical algorithm to progressively refine the accuracy of its detection, stopping as needed to maintain the realtime performance essential for interactive applications. The key to this approach is a preprocess that automatically builds tightly fitting hierarchies for rigid and articulated objects. The preprocess uses medialaxis surfaces, which are skeletal representations of objects. These skeletons guide an optimization technique that gives the hierarchies accuracy properties appropriate for collision detection. In a sample application, hierarchies built this way allow the timecritical collisiondetection algorithm to have acceptable accuracy, improving significantly on that possible with hierarchies built by previous techniques. The performance of the timecritical algorithm in this appli...