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47
Database Query Languages Embedded in the Typed Lambda Calculus
, 1993
"... We investigate the expressive power of the typed calculus when expressing computations over finite structures, i.e., databases. We show that the simply typed calculus can express various database query languages such as the relational algebra, fixpoint logic, and the complex object algebra. In ..."
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Cited by 29 (6 self)
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We investigate the expressive power of the typed calculus when expressing computations over finite structures, i.e., databases. We show that the simply typed calculus can express various database query languages such as the relational algebra, fixpoint logic, and the complex object algebra. In our embeddings, inputs and outputs are terms encoding databases, and a program expressing a query is a term which types when applied to an input and reduces to an output.
Aggregate functions, conservative extension, and linear orders
 In Proceedings of 4th International Workshop on Database Programming Languages
, 1993
"... Practical database query languages are usually equipped with some aggregate functions. For example, \ nd mean of column " can be expressed in SQL. However, the manner in which aggregate functions were introduced in these query languages leaves something to be desired. BreazuTannen, Buneman, a ..."
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Cited by 29 (23 self)
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Practical database query languages are usually equipped with some aggregate functions. For example, \ nd mean of column " can be expressed in SQL. However, the manner in which aggregate functions were introduced in these query languages leaves something to be desired. BreazuTannen, Buneman, and Wong [3] introduced a nested relational languageNRC(=) based on monads [16, 24] and structural recursion [1, 2]. It was shown in Wong [27] that this language is equivalent to the nested relational algebras of Thomas and Fischer [22], Schek and Scholl [20], and Colby [4]. NRC(=) enjoys certain advantages over these languages: it is naturally embedded in functional languages, it is readily extensible, and it has a compact equational theory. Therefore, it is used in this report as a basis for investigating aggregate functions. In section 2, the nested relational calculus NRC(=) is described. It is then endowed with rational numbers, rational arithmetic, and a summation operator. The augmented language,NRC(Q; +; ; ; ; P; =), is able to express a variety
Tractable Query Languages for Complex Object Databases
, 1995
"... The expressiveness and complexity of several calculusbased query languages for complex objects is considered. Unlike previous investigations, we are concerned with the complexity of queries on databases of complex objects, rather than flat databases. This raises new issues specific to complex objec ..."
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Cited by 26 (4 self)
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The expressiveness and complexity of several calculusbased query languages for complex objects is considered. Unlike previous investigations, we are concerned with the complexity of queries on databases of complex objects, rather than flat databases. This raises new issues specific to complex objects. For instance, it is shown that the way the database makes use of its higherorder types has direct impact on query complexity. The use of fixpoint operators is shown to yield languages wellbehaved with respect to complexity and expressiveness. In particular, an extension of the fixpoint queries to complex objects is shown to express precisely the PTIME queries, under the assumption that the database makes "full" use of all its types. Similar results involve rangerestricted queries. 1 Introduction Complex objects are increasingly part of advanced database systems. They provide the structural core of objectoriented databases. Several query languages for complex objects have been propo...
Sequences, Datalog and Transducers
, 1996
"... This paper develops a query language for sequence databases, such as genome databases and text databases. The language, called SequenceDatalog, extends classical Datalog with interpreted function symbols for manipulating sequences. It has both a clear operational and declarative semantics, based on ..."
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Cited by 26 (5 self)
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This paper develops a query language for sequence databases, such as genome databases and text databases. The language, called SequenceDatalog, extends classical Datalog with interpreted function symbols for manipulating sequences. It has both a clear operational and declarative semantics, based on a new notion called the extended active domain of a database. The extended domain contains all the sequences in the database and all their subsequences. This idea leads to a clear distinction between safe and unsafe recursion over sequences: safe recursion stays inside the extended active domain, while unsafe recursion does not. By carefully limiting the amountof unsafe recursion, the paper develops a safe and expressive subset of Sequence Datalog. As part of the development, a new type of transducer is introduced, called a generalized sequence transducer. Unsafe recursion is allowed only within these generalized transducers. Generalized transducers extend ordinary transducers by allowing them to invoke other transducers as "subroutines." Generalized transducers can be implemented in Sequence Datalog in a straightforward way. Moreover, their introduction into the language leads to simple conditions that guarantee safety and finiteness. This paper develops two such conditions. The first condition expresses exactly the class of ptime sequence functions; and the second expresses exactly the class of elementary sequence functions.
Domain Independence and the Relational Calculus
 Acta Informatica
, 1993
"... Several alternative semantics (or interpretations) of the relational (domain) calculus are studied here. It is shown that they all have the same expressive power, i.e., the selection of any of the semantics neither gains nor loses expressive power. Since the domain is potentially infinite, the answe ..."
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Cited by 24 (7 self)
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Several alternative semantics (or interpretations) of the relational (domain) calculus are studied here. It is shown that they all have the same expressive power, i.e., the selection of any of the semantics neither gains nor loses expressive power. Since the domain is potentially infinite, the answer to a relational calculus query is sometimes infinite (and hence not a relation). The following approaches which guarantee the finiteness of answers to queries are studied here: outputrestricted unlimited interpretation, domain independent queries, outputrestricted finite and countable invention, and limited interpretation. Of particular interest is the outputrestricted unlimited interpretation  although the output is restricted to the active domain of the input and query, the quantified variables range over the infinite underlying domain. While this is close to the intuitive interpretation given to calculus formulas, the naive approach to evaluating queries under this semantics calls ...
An Algebra for Pomsets
, 1995
"... We study languages for manipulating partially ordered structures with duplicates (e.g. trees, lists). As a general framework, we consider the pomset (partially ordered multiset) data type. We introduce an algebra for pomsets, which generalizes traditional algebras for (nested) sets, bags and list ..."
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Cited by 20 (3 self)
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We study languages for manipulating partially ordered structures with duplicates (e.g. trees, lists). As a general framework, we consider the pomset (partially ordered multiset) data type. We introduce an algebra for pomsets, which generalizes traditional algebras for (nested) sets, bags and lists. This paper is motivated by the study of the impact of different language primitives on the expressive power. We show that the use of partially ordered types increases the expressive power significantly. Surprisingly, it turns out that the algebra when restricted to both unordered (bags) and totally ordered (lists) intermediate types, yields the same expressive power as fixpoint logic with counting on relational databases. It therefore constitutes a rather robust class of relational queries. On the other hand, we obtain a characterization of PTIME queries on lists by considering only totally ordered types.
On the Complexity of Queries in the Logical Data Model
 THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1993
"... We investigate the complexity of query processing in the logical data model (LDM). We use two measures: data complexity, which is complexity with respect to the size of the data, and expression complexity, which is complexity with respect to the size of the expressions denoting the queries. Our inve ..."
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Cited by 19 (0 self)
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We investigate the complexity of query processing in the logical data model (LDM). We use two measures: data complexity, which is complexity with respect to the size of the data, and expression complexity, which is complexity with respect to the size of the expressions denoting the queries. Our investigation shows that while the operations of product and union are essentially firstorder operations, the power set operation is inherently a higherorder operation and is exponentially expensive. We define a hierarchy of queries based on the depth of nesting of power set operations and show that this hierarchy corresponds to a natural hierarchy of Turing machines that run in multiply exponential time.
Complexity of Nonrecursive Logic Programs with Complex Values
 In Proceedings of the 17th ACM SIGACTSIGMODSIGART Symposium on Principles of Database Systems (PODSâ€™98
, 1998
"... We investigate complexity of the SUCCESS problem for logic query languages with complex values: check whether a query defines a nonempty set. The SUCCESS problem for recursive query languages with complex values is undecidable, so we study the complexity of nonrecursive queries. By complex values we ..."
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Cited by 18 (2 self)
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We investigate complexity of the SUCCESS problem for logic query languages with complex values: check whether a query defines a nonempty set. The SUCCESS problem for recursive query languages with complex values is undecidable, so we study the complexity of nonrecursive queries. By complex values we understand values such as trees, finite sets, and multisets. Due to the wellknown correspondence between relational query languages and datalog, our results can be considered as results about relational query languages with complex values. The paper gives a complete complexity classification of the SUCCESS problem for nonrecursive logic programs over trees depending on the underlying signature, presence of negation, and range restrictedness. We also prove several results about finite sets and multisets. 1 Introduction A number of complexity results have been established for logic query languages. They are surveyed in [49, 18]. The major themes in these results are the complexity and expr...
A GraphBased Data Model and its Ramifications
 IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
, 1995
"... Currently database researchers are investigating new data models in order to remedy the deficiences of the flat relational model when applied to nonbusiness applications. Herein we concentrate on a recent graphbased data model called the hypernode model. The single underlying data structure of thi ..."
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Cited by 16 (1 self)
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Currently database researchers are investigating new data models in order to remedy the deficiences of the flat relational model when applied to nonbusiness applications. Herein we concentrate on a recent graphbased data model called the hypernode model. The single underlying data structure of this model is the hypernode which is a digraph with a unique defining label. We present in detail the three components of the model, namely its data structure, the hypernode, its query and update language, called HNQL, and its provision for enforcing integrity constraints. We first demonstrate that the said data model is a natural candidate for formalising hypertext. We then compare it with other graphbased data models and with setbased data models. We also investigate the expressive power of HNQL. Finally, using the hypernode model as a paradigm for graphbased data modelling, we show how to bridge the gap between graphbased and setbased data models, and at what computational cost this can...
A Query Language for ListBased Complex Objects
 IN THIRTEENTH ACM SIGMOD INTERN. SYMPOSIUM ON PRINCIPLES OF DATABASE SYSTEMS (PODS'94
, 1994
"... We present a language for querying listbased complex objects. The language is shown to express precisely the polynomialtime generic listobject functions. The iteration mechanism of the language is based on a new approach wherein, in addition to the list over which the iteration is performed, a se ..."
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Cited by 15 (5 self)
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We present a language for querying listbased complex objects. The language is shown to express precisely the polynomialtime generic listobject functions. The iteration mechanism of the language is based on a new approach wherein, in addition to the list over which the iteration is performed, a second list is used to control the number of iteration steps. During the iteration, the intermediate results can be moved to the output list as well as reinserted into the list being iterated over. A simple syntactic constraint allows the growth rate of the intermediate results to be tightly controlled which, in turn, restricts the expressiveness of the language to PTIME.