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ViewDependent Refinement of Progressive Meshes
"... Levelofdetail (LOD) representations are an important tool for realtime rendering of complex geometric environments. The previously introduced progressive mesh representation defines for an arbitrary triangle mesh a sequence of approximating meshes optimized for viewindependent LOD. In this paper, ..."
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Cited by 459 (5 self)
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Levelofdetail (LOD) representations are an important tool for realtime rendering of complex geometric environments. The previously introduced progressive mesh representation defines for an arbitrary triangle mesh a sequence of approximating meshes optimized for viewindependent LOD. In this paper, we introduce a framework for selectively refining an arbitrary progressive mesh according to changing view parameters. We define efficient refinement criteria based on the view frustum, surface orientation, and screenspace geometric error, and develop a realtime algorithm for incrementally refining and coarsening the mesh according to these criteria. The algorithm exploits view coherence, supports frame rate regulation, and is found to require less than 15 % of total frame time on a graphics workstation. Moreover, for continuous motions this work can be amortized over consecutive frames. In addition, smooth visual transitions (geomorphs) can be constructed between any two selectively refined meshes. A number of previous schemes create viewdependent LOD meshes for height fields (e.g. terrains) and parametric surfaces (e.g. NURBS). Our framework also performs well for these special cases. Notably, the absence of a rigid subdivision structure allows more accurate approximations than with existing schemes. We include results for these cases as well as for general meshes.
Smooth ViewDependent LevelofDetail Control and Its Application to Terrain Rendering
"... The key to realtime rendering of largescale surfaces is to locally adapt surface geometric complexity to changing view parameters. Several schemes have been developed to address this problem of viewdependent levelofdetail control. Among these, the viewdependent progressive mesh (VDPM) framewor ..."
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Cited by 264 (1 self)
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The key to realtime rendering of largescale surfaces is to locally adapt surface geometric complexity to changing view parameters. Several schemes have been developed to address this problem of viewdependent levelofdetail control. Among these, the viewdependent progressive mesh (VDPM) framework represents an arbitrary triangle mesh as a hierarchy of geometrically optimized refinement transformations, from which accurate approximating meshes can be efficiently retrieved. In this paper we extend the general VDPM framework to provide temporal coherence through the runtime creation of geomorphs. These geomorphs eliminate "popping" artifacts by smoothly interpolating geometry. Their implementation requires new outputsensitive data structures, which have the added benefit of reducing memory use.
Geometry clipmaps: terrain rendering using nested regular grids
 In SIGGRAPH ’04: ACM SIGGRAPH 2004 Papers
, 2004
"... Illustration using a coarse geometry clipmap (size n=31) View of the 216,000×93,600 U.S. dataset near Grand Canyon (n=255) Figure 1:Terrains rendered using geometry clipmaps, showing clipmap levels (size n×n) and transition regions (in blue on right). Rendering throughput has reached a level that en ..."
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Cited by 146 (2 self)
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Illustration using a coarse geometry clipmap (size n=31) View of the 216,000×93,600 U.S. dataset near Grand Canyon (n=255) Figure 1:Terrains rendered using geometry clipmaps, showing clipmap levels (size n×n) and transition regions (in blue on right). Rendering throughput has reached a level that enables a novel approach to levelofdetail (LOD) control in terrain rendering. We introduce the geometry clipmap, which caches the terrain in a set of nested regular grids centered about the viewer. The grids are stored as vertex buffers in fast video memory, and are incrementally refilled as the viewpoint moves. This simple framework provides visual continuity, uniform frame rate, complexity throttling, and graceful degradation. Moreover it allows two new exciting realtime functionalities: decompression and synthesis. Our main dataset is a 40GB height map of the United States. A compressed image pyramid reduces the size by a remarkable factor of 100, so that it fits entirely in memory. This compressed data also contributes normal maps for shading. As the viewer approaches the surface, we synthesize grid levels finer than the stored terrain using fractal noise displacement. Decompression, synthesis, and normalmap computations are incremental, thereby allowing interactive flight at 60 frames/sec.
Multiresolution Decimation based on Global Error
 The Visual Computer
, 1997
"... Due to the surface meshes produced at increasing complexity in many applications, interest in efficient simplification algorithms and multiresolution representation is very high. An enhanced simplification approach together with a general multiresolution data scheme are presented here. JADE, a new s ..."
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Cited by 103 (14 self)
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Due to the surface meshes produced at increasing complexity in many applications, interest in efficient simplification algorithms and multiresolution representation is very high. An enhanced simplification approach together with a general multiresolution data scheme are presented here. JADE, a new simplification solution based on the Mesh Decimation approach has been designed to provide both increased approximation precision, based on global error management, and multiresolution output. Moreover, we show that with a small increase in memory, which is needed to store the multiresolution data representation, we are able to extract any level of detail representation from the simplification results in an extremely efficient way. Results are reported on empirical time complexity, approximation quality, and simplification power. Keywords: surface modeling, mesh simplification, bounded approximation error, multiresolution. Address to which proofs should be sent: R. SCOPIGNO, CNUCE  Consigl...
Hierarchical Triangulation for Multiresolution Surface Description
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 1995
"... A new hierarchical trianglebased model for representing surfaces over sampled data is proposed, which is based on the subdivision of the surface domain into nested triangulations, called a Hierarchical Triangulation (HT). The model allows compression of spatial data and representation of a surface ..."
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Cited by 100 (16 self)
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A new hierarchical trianglebased model for representing surfaces over sampled data is proposed, which is based on the subdivision of the surface domain into nested triangulations, called a Hierarchical Triangulation (HT). The model allows compression of spatial data and representation of a surface at successively finer degrees of resolution. An HT is a collection of triangulations organized in a tree, where each node, except for the root, is a triangulation refining a face belonging to its parent in the hierarchy. We present a topological model for representing an HT, and algorithms for its construction and for the extraction of a triangulation at a given degree of resolution. The surface model, called a Hierarchical Triangulated Surface (HTS), is obtained by associating data values with the vertices of triangles, and defining suitable functions that describe the surface over each triangular patch. We consider an application of a piecewiselinear version of the HTS to interpolate topo...
BDAM – batched dynamic adaptive meshes for high performance terrain visualization
 Computer Graphics Forum
, 2003
"... This paper describes an efficient technique for outofcore rendering and management of large textured terrain surfaces. The technique, called Batched Dynamic Adaptive Meshes (BDAM) , is based on a paired tree structure: a tiled quadtree for texture data and a pair of bintrees of small triangular pa ..."
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Cited by 82 (14 self)
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This paper describes an efficient technique for outofcore rendering and management of large textured terrain surfaces. The technique, called Batched Dynamic Adaptive Meshes (BDAM) , is based on a paired tree structure: a tiled quadtree for texture data and a pair of bintrees of small triangular patches for the geometry. These small patches are TINs and are constructed and optimized offline with high quality simplification and tristripping algorithms. Hierarchical view frustum culling and viewdependent texture and geometry refinement is performed at each frame through a stateless traversal algorithm. Thanks to the batched CPU/GPU communication model, the proposed technique is not processor intensive and fully harnesses the power of current graphics hardware. Both preprocessing and rendering exploit outofcore techniques to be fully scalable and to manage large terrain datasets.
Variable Resolution Terrain Surfaces
, 1996
"... A model for the multiresolution decomposition of planar domains into triangles is introduced, which is more general than other multiresolution models proposed in the literature, and can be efficiently applied to the representation of a polyhedral terrain at variable resolution. The model is based on ..."
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Cited by 53 (6 self)
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A model for the multiresolution decomposition of planar domains into triangles is introduced, which is more general than other multiresolution models proposed in the literature, and can be efficiently applied to the representation of a polyhedral terrain at variable resolution. The model is based on a collection of fragments of plane triangulations arranged into a partially ordered set. Different decompositions of a domain can be obtained by combining different fragments from the model. A data structure to encode the model is presented, and an efficient algorithm is proposed that can extract in linear time a polyhedral terrain representation, whose accuracy over the domain is variable according to a given threshold function. Furthermore, the size of the extracted representation is minimum among all possible polyhedral representations that can be built from the model, and that satisfy the threshold function. A major application of these results is in real time rendering of terrains in f...
Multiresolution representation and visualization of volume data.
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics,
, 1997
"... ..."
PlanetSized Batched Dynamic Adaptive Meshes (PBDAM)
"... We describe an efficient technique for outofcore management and interactive rendering of planet sized textured terrain surfaces. The technique, called PBatched Dynamic Adaptive Meshes (P BDAM), extends the BDAM approach by using as basic primitive a general triangulation of points on a displaced ..."
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Cited by 45 (7 self)
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We describe an efficient technique for outofcore management and interactive rendering of planet sized textured terrain surfaces. The technique, called PBatched Dynamic Adaptive Meshes (P BDAM), extends the BDAM approach by using as basic primitive a general triangulation of points on a displaced triangle. The proposed framework introduces several advances with respect to the state of the art: thanks to a batched hosttographics communication model, we outperform current adaptive tessellation solutions in terms of rendering speed; we guarantee overall geometric continuity, exploiting programmable graphics hardware to cope with the accuracy issues introduced by single precision floating points; we exploit a compressed out of core representation and speculative prefetching for hiding disk latency during rendering of outofcore data; we efficiently construct high quality simplified representations with a novel distributed out of core simplification algorithm working on a standard PC network.
A Formal Approach to Multiresolution Modeling
, 1996
"... this paper is to provide a systematic framework for multiresolution geometric modeling, independent both of the dimension of spatial objects under consideration, and of the specific application. This paper introduces a formal model, called the Multiresolution Simplicial Model (MSM), capable of captu ..."
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Cited by 45 (20 self)
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this paper is to provide a systematic framework for multiresolution geometric modeling, independent both of the dimension of spatial objects under consideration, and of the specific application. This paper introduces a formal model, called the Multiresolution Simplicial Model (MSM), capable of capturing the characteristics of most models known in the literature. The paper provides an analysis of the relationships between the intrinsic structures of different multiresolution models, and a definition of the relevant operations on them. Finally, major data structures used to encode multiresolution models are reviewed, as well as algorithms which implement the operations on each data structure.