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222
Recognition of visual activities and interactions by stochastic parsing
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2000
"... This paper describes a probabilistic syntactic approach to the detection and recognition of temporally extended activities and interactions between multiple agents. The fundamental idea is to divide the recognition problem into two levels. The lower level detections are performed using standard inde ..."
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Cited by 322 (8 self)
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This paper describes a probabilistic syntactic approach to the detection and recognition of temporally extended activities and interactions between multiple agents. The fundamental idea is to divide the recognition problem into two levels. The lower level detections are performed using standard independent probabilistic event detectors to propose candidate detections of lowlevel features. The outputs of these detectors provide the input stream for a stochastic contextfree grammar parsing mechanism. The grammar and parser provide longer range temporal constraints, disambiguate uncertain lowlevel detections, and allow the inclusion of a priori knowledge about the structure of temporal events in a given domain. To achieve such a system we: 1) provide techniques for generating a discrete symbol stream from continuous lowlevel detectors; 2) extend stochastic contextfree parsing to handle uncertainty in the input symbol stream; 3) augment a runtime parsing algorithm to enforce intersymbol constraints such as requiring temporal consistency between primitives; and 4) extend the consistency filtering to maintain consistent multiobject interactions. We develop a realtime system and demonstrate the approach in several experiments on gesture recognition and in video surveillance. In the surveillance application, we show how the system correctly interprets activities of multiple, interacting objects.
Expectationbased syntactic comprehension
, 2006
"... This paper investigates the role of resource allocation as a source of processing difficulty in human sentence comprehension. The paper proposes a simple informationtheoretic characterization of processing difficulty as the work incurred by resource reallocation during parallel, incremental, probabi ..."
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Cited by 231 (18 self)
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This paper investigates the role of resource allocation as a source of processing difficulty in human sentence comprehension. The paper proposes a simple informationtheoretic characterization of processing difficulty as the work incurred by resource reallocation during parallel, incremental, probabilistic disambiguation in sentence comprehension, and demonstrates its equivalence to the theory of Hale (2001), in which the difficulty of a word is proportional to its surprisal (its negative logprobability) in the context within which it appears. This proposal subsumes and clarifies findings that highconstraint contexts can facilitate lexical processing, and connects these findings to wellknown models of parallel constraintbased comprehension. In addition, the theory leads to a number of specific predictions about the role of expectation in syntactic comprehension, including the reversal of localitybased difficulty patterns in syntactically constrained contexts, and conditions under which increased ambiguity facilitates processing. The paper examines a range of established results bearing on these predictions, and shows that they are largely consistent with the surprisal theory.
A Probabilistic Model of Lexical and Syntactic Access and Disambiguation
 COGNITIVE SCIENCE
, 1995
"... The problems of access  retrieving linguistic structure from some mental grammar  and disambiguation  choosing among these structures to correctly parse ambiguous linguistic input  are fundamental to language understanding. The literature abounds with psychological results on lexical access, ..."
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Cited by 207 (12 self)
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The problems of access  retrieving linguistic structure from some mental grammar  and disambiguation  choosing among these structures to correctly parse ambiguous linguistic input  are fundamental to language understanding. The literature abounds with psychological results on lexical access, the access of idioms, syntactic rule access, parsing preferences, syntactic disambiguation, and the processing of gardenpath sentences. Unfortunately, it has been difficult to combine models which account for these results to build a general, uniform model of access and disambiguation at the lexical, idiomatic, and syntactic levels. For example psycholinguistic theories of lexical access and idiom access and parsing theories of syntactic rule access have almost no commonality in methodology or coverage of psycholinguistic data. This paper presents a single probabilistic algorithm which models both the access and disambiguation of linguistic knowledge. The algorithm is based on a parallel parser which ranks constructions for access, and interpretations for disambiguation, by their conditional probability. Lowranked constructions and interpretations are pruned through beamsearch; this pruning accounts, among other things, for the gardenpath effect. I show that this motivated probabilistic treatment accounts for a wide variety of psycholinguistic results, arguing for a more uniform representation of linguistic knowledge and for the use of probabilisticallyenriched grammars and interpreters as models of human knowledge of and processing of language.
Composition in distributional models of semantics
, 2010
"... Distributional models of semantics have proven themselves invaluable both in cognitive modelling of semantic phenomena and also in practical applications. For example, they have been used to model judgments of semantic similarity (McDonald, 2000) and association (Denhire and Lemaire, 2004; Griffit ..."
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Cited by 148 (3 self)
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Distributional models of semantics have proven themselves invaluable both in cognitive modelling of semantic phenomena and also in practical applications. For example, they have been used to model judgments of semantic similarity (McDonald, 2000) and association (Denhire and Lemaire, 2004; Griffiths et al., 2007) and have been shown to achieve human level performance on synonymy tests (Landuaer and Dumais, 1997; Griffiths et al., 2007) such as those included in the Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL). This ability has been put to practical use in automatic thesaurus extraction (Grefenstette, 1994). However, while there has been a considerable amount of research directed at the most effective ways of constructing representations for individual words, the representation of larger constructions, e.g., phrases and sentences, has received relatively little attention. In this thesis we examine this issue of how to compose meanings within distributional models of semantics to form representations of multiword structures. Natural language data typically consists of such complex structures, rather than
A Probabilistic Earley Parser as a Psycholinguistic Model
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF NAACL
, 2001
"... In human sentence processing, cognitive load can be defined many ways. This report considers a definition of cognitive load in terms of the total probability of structural options that have been disconfirmed at some point in a sentence: the surprisal of word w i given its prefix w 0...i1 on a phras ..."
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Cited by 146 (5 self)
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In human sentence processing, cognitive load can be defined many ways. This report considers a definition of cognitive load in terms of the total probability of structural options that have been disconfirmed at some point in a sentence: the surprisal of word w i given its prefix w 0...i1 on a phrasestructural language model. These loads can be efficiently calculated using a probabilistic Earley parser (Stolcke, 1995) which is interpreted as generating predictions about reading time on a wordbyword basis. Under grammatical assumptions supported by corpusfrequency data, the operation of Stolcke's probabilistic Earley parser correctly predicts processing phenomena associated with garden path structural ambiguity and with the subject/object relative asymmetry.
Parameter learning of logic programs for symbolicstatistical modeling
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 2001
"... We propose a logical/mathematical framework for statistical parameter learning of parameterized logic programs, i.e. de nite clause programs containing probabilistic facts with a parameterized distribution. It extends the traditional least Herbrand model semantics in logic programming to distributio ..."
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Cited by 122 (20 self)
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We propose a logical/mathematical framework for statistical parameter learning of parameterized logic programs, i.e. de nite clause programs containing probabilistic facts with a parameterized distribution. It extends the traditional least Herbrand model semantics in logic programming to distribution semantics, possible world semantics with a probability distribution which is unconditionally applicable to arbitrary logic programs including ones for HMMs, PCFGs and Bayesian networks. We also propose a new EM algorithm, the graphical EM algorithm, thatrunsfora class of parameterized logic programs representing sequential decision processes where each decision is exclusive and independent. It runs on a new data structure called support graphs describing the logical relationship between observations and their explanations, and learns parameters by computing inside and outside probability generalized for logic programs. The complexity analysis shows that when combined with OLDT search for all explanations for observations, the graphical EM algorithm, despite its generality, has the same time complexity as existing EM algorithms, i.e. the BaumWelch algorithm for HMMs, the InsideOutside algorithm for PCFGs, and the one for singly connected Bayesian networks that have beendeveloped independently in each research eld. Learning experiments with PCFGs using two corpora of moderate size indicate that the graphical EM algorithm can signi cantly outperform the InsideOutside algorithm. 1.
Parsing InsideOut
, 1998
"... Probabilistic ContextFree Grammars (PCFGs) and variations on them have recently become some of the most common formalisms for parsing. It is common with PCFGs to compute the inside and outside probabilities. When these probabilities are multiplied together and normalized, they produce the probabili ..."
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Cited by 100 (2 self)
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Probabilistic ContextFree Grammars (PCFGs) and variations on them have recently become some of the most common formalisms for parsing. It is common with PCFGs to compute the inside and outside probabilities. When these probabilities are multiplied together and normalized, they produce the probability that any given nonterminal covers any piece of the input sentence. The traditional use of these probabilities is to improve the probabilities of grammar rules. In this thesis we show that these values are useful for solving many other problems in Statistical Natural Language Processing. We give a framework for describing parsers. The framework generalizes the inside and outside values to semirings. It makes it easy to describe parsers that compute a wide variety of interesting quantities, including the inside and outside probabilities, as well as related quantities such as Viterbi probabilities and nbest lists. We also present three novel uses for the inside and outside probabilities. T...
Probabilistic TopDown Parsing and Language Modeling
 Computational Linguistics
, 2004
"... This paper describes the functioning of a broadcoverage probabilistic topdown parser, and its application to the problem of language modeling for speech recognition. The paper first introduces key notions in language modeling and probabilistic parsing, and briefly reviews some previous approaches ..."
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Cited by 100 (1 self)
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This paper describes the functioning of a broadcoverage probabilistic topdown parser, and its application to the problem of language modeling for speech recognition. The paper first introduces key notions in language modeling and probabilistic parsing, and briefly reviews some previous approaches to using syntactic structure for language modeling. A lexicalized probabilistic topdown parser is then presented, which performs very well, in terms of both the accuracy of returned parses and the efficiency with which they are found, relative to the best broadcoverage statistical parsers. A new language model that utilizes probabilistic topdown parsing is then outlined, and empirical results show that it improves upon previous work in test corpus perplexity. Interpolation with a trigram model yields an exceptional improvement relative to the improvement observed by other models, demonstrating the degree to which the information captured by our parsing model is orthogonal to that captured by a trigram model. A small recognition experiment also demonstrates the utility of the model
Semiring Parsing
 Computational Linguistics
, 1999
"... this paper is that all five of these commonly computed quantities can be described as elements of complete semirings (Kuich 1997). The relationship between grammars and semirings was discovered by Chomsky and Schtitzenberger (1963), and for parsing with the CKY algorithm, dates back to Teitelbaum ( ..."
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Cited by 85 (1 self)
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this paper is that all five of these commonly computed quantities can be described as elements of complete semirings (Kuich 1997). The relationship between grammars and semirings was discovered by Chomsky and Schtitzenberger (1963), and for parsing with the CKY algorithm, dates back to Teitelbaum (1973). A complete semiring is a set of values over which a multiplicative operator and a commutative additive operator have been defined, and for which infinite summations are defined. For parsing algorithms satisfying certain conditions, the multiplicative and additive operations of any complete semiring can be used in place of/x and , and correct values will be returned. We will give a simple normal form for describing parsers, then precisely define complete semirings, and the conditions for correctness